NC State University

Optoelectronic Switching Systems

      Paul D. Franzon

      Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 

      NC State University, Raleigh NC 27695 

      Ph. 919 515 7351,, 

      (in collaboration with Sing Lee, NIPT and UC(San Diego))       Technology:

      MEMS, Thinning, 

      Optical Processes


      CAD, Analysis, 

      Code V, CGH

      System Design:

      Efficiency, flexibility, 

      Alignment, etc. 



      Systems       Advantages:
          o High bandwidth
                + All processing at speed of light 
          o Low cost
                + Simple lithographic steps
                + Low cost (O($10)/part) MEMS ('micromachine') technology
                + No Optical-Electrical-Optical transformation 

          o Controlling losses (< 1-10% possible)
          o Alignment in manufacturing (Adaptive?)     * Scanners
          o Wavelength division and beam steering in one plane only
          o Based on MEMS and diffractive optics
          o 100% efficiency possible 

    * Adaptive Optics
          o 2-D beam formers for laser radar and other applications
                + applications in machine vision and radar 
          o Based on MEMS arrays, free space optics and wafer thinning
          o 90%+ efficiency possible Surface Micromachining

    * Simple, cheap scanner structures (100% efficient)
    * Arrays of optical elements

          o Individually addressed optical modulators
          o Up to 8-level gratings for 90% efficiency 
    * Can do blaze gratings with process changes (100% efficiency)     * Wafer Thinning for backside control
          o Increases fill factor to 90%

    * Fixed diffractive optical elements and Computer Generated Holograms Design

    * 8 succsesful MEMS designs
    * custom optical MEMS process next year
    * Tools:
          o In house FEM tool for Optics
          o MEMCAD
          o Cadence
          o Code V
          o DOE/CGH tools     * Manufacturability
          o Impact of manufacturing variations on system performance
          o Utilizing adaptive optics and feeback to compensate 

    * Design and Measurement
          o Matching technologies to application
                + Currently focusing on LIDAR but seeking other applications
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