NC State University

Optoelectronic Switching Systems

      Paul D. Franzon

      Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 

      NC State University, Raleigh NC 27695 

      Ph. 919 515 7351, paulf@ncsu.edu, www.ece.ncsu.edu/erl/ 

      (in collaboration with Sing Lee, NIPT and UC(San Diego))       Technology:

      MEMS, Thinning, 

      Optical Processes

      Design:

      CAD, Analysis, 

      Code V, CGH

      System Design:

      Efficiency, flexibility, 

      Alignment, etc. 

      All

      Optical 

      Systems       Advantages:
          o High bandwidth
                + All processing at speed of light 
          o Low cost
                + Simple lithographic steps
                + Low cost (O($10)/part) MEMS ('micromachine') technology
                + No Optical-Electrical-Optical transformation 

      Disadvantages:
          o Controlling losses (< 1-10% possible)
          o Alignment in manufacturing (Adaptive?)     * Scanners
          o Wavelength division and beam steering in one plane only
          o Based on MEMS and diffractive optics
          o 100% efficiency possible 

    * Adaptive Optics
          o 2-D beam formers for laser radar and other applications
                + applications in machine vision and radar 
          o Based on MEMS arrays, free space optics and wafer thinning
          o 90%+ efficiency possible Surface Micromachining

    * Simple, cheap scanner structures (100% efficient)
    * Arrays of optical elements



          o Individually addressed optical modulators
          o Up to 8-level gratings for 90% efficiency 
    * Can do blaze gratings with process changes (100% efficiency)     * Wafer Thinning for backside control
          o Increases fill factor to 90%




    * Fixed diffractive optical elements and Computer Generated Holograms Design

    * 8 succsesful MEMS designs
    * custom optical MEMS process next year
    * Tools:
          o In house FEM tool for Optics
          o MEMCAD
          o Cadence
          o Code V
          o DOE/CGH tools     * Manufacturability
          o Impact of manufacturing variations on system performance
          o Utilizing adaptive optics and feeback to compensate 

    * Design and Measurement
          o Matching technologies to application
                + Currently focusing on LIDAR but seeking other applications
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