# Research

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## Research Projects

The Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering boasts an active and agile research community comprised of our nationally recognized staff, students, and collaborating colleagues. This cadre of scientists is bolstered by grants, both private and public, to further explore our field's unknown horizons.

Our department is filled with knowledgeable, astute individuals dedicated to uncovering new ideas and technology in the areas of Bioelectriconics, Communications, Computer Architecture, Nanoelectronics, and Power Systems. Our department encourages these efforts by providing a number of cutting-edge facilities and services to cultivate scientific progress.

Our research team is world recognized and funded by top names in both the public and private sectors. Government organization such as The National Science Foundation, The Army Research Office, and the U.S. Department of Energy, as well as corporations such as Cisco Systems, Qualcomm, Hewlett-Packard, and Red Hat have all allocated resources to further our research and development.

Our college has been awarded two Engineering Research Centers (ERCs) by the National Science Foundation. These ERCs are part of a nation-wide group of university level interdisciplinary centers that work in partnership with local industry to pursue strategic solutions to complex engineering problems. ERCs have the potential to revolutionize entire products, systems, methodologies, and industries. This support is a large reason why our college is ranked seventeenth in the nation in research expenditures and fourteenth in industry support, according to the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) in 2007.

Current Research Grants By Type

Research in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering covers the gamut from basic to applied. Specific topics include not only those under our eight research areas, but themes such as novel ways to teach fundamental concepts, engineering as a life-long discipline, and the engineering education community.

The following list represents the projects active during the July 1st, 2013 through June 31st, 2014 fiscal year. Unfunded research is conducted continuously as the scientific curiosity of our faculty lead them to new areas of inquiry. Although we list only the principal investigators from each project, research is typically carried out through collaboration of the faculty, their students, and colleagues. This list of projects is updated daily. Links to compiled listings of previous years' projects are posted on this page's sidebar as they become available.

All Projects: 158 found

### Modeling and Fabrication of Microscale Wire Grids for Co-Located Transparent Antennas and Solar Cells

04/01/14 - 02/01/15

Space-based communications and sensing are critical for national security, scientific discovery, and many electronic conveniences in our everyday lives. Due to the high cost of orbital launch, large and expensive satellites may soon be replaced by so-called “microsatellites” and “nanosatellites”. On these small satellites, solar cells and antennas are often competing for space because their occupied area relates directly to their performance. In traditional architectures, an antenna and solar cell cannot be co-located because the antenna is made of an optically opaque conductor, blocking light entering the cell. However, both transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) and dense metallic grids can create antenna apertures that are conductive at microwave frequencies yet optically transparent. Recent results have shown that metallic grids made with highly conductive inks can perform better than solid layers of the low conductivity TCOs. New advances in direct-write fabrication technology have enabled the patterning of highly conductive microscale features and simple antenna designs using such grids have been demonstrated. This project seeks to develop the fabrication and design techniques necessary to create the electrically large elements and arrays with complex feeding networks that would be required in practice. Specifically, we will set up a direct-write fabrication laboratory where antenna samples can be fabricated and measured. To reduce the computational complexity when designing large antennas and arrays, we will develop new surface impedance models for the dense grids. Furthermore, transparent transmission lines for feeding large arrays will be investigated. The combination of these technologies will mark an important step toward the next generation of small satellites communications and energy harvesting.

This project is sponsored by NCSU NC Space Grant Consortium.

### Silicon Carbide Devices for FID and SST Applications

B. Jayant Baliga, Alex Q. Huang, Douglas C Hopkins
09/01/08 - 08/31/14

The IFM functionality requires semiconductor switches that can rapidly turn-off line currents whenever a fault is detected by the system. The semiconductor device must be capable of supporting the peak AC line voltage in both directions. It must have low on-state voltage drop to reduce power losses during normal operating states of the system. At present, the FID has been implemented in Gen-I using 6.5-kV IGBTs with a series diode to provide reverse blocking capability. This combination has an on-state voltage drop of nearly 15 volts because three 6.5-kV silicon IGBTs and three 6.5-kV silicon diodes are connected in series. The present configuration cannot provide fault current limiting.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM).

### Fault Locating and Prediction on Distribution Feeders

Mesut E. Baran
06/01/10 - 12/31/14

Various feeder monitoring projects have been undertaken over the last decade for power quality and automation. These studies have indicated that one of the main uses of the monitoring data will be to locate the faults. The studies have also demonstrated that the monitored data contains signatures of many disturbances due mainly to the equipment disoperation or failure. These signatures therefore can be used to identify equipment that is disoperation or about to fail. The goal of this project is to enhance these two functions and demonstrate their performance on an actual test system.

This project is sponsored by First Energy Corporation (formerly Allegheny Energy, Inc.).

### LSSS - Volt/Var Control

Mesut E. Baran
09/01/11 - 08/31/14

To manage the voltage variations in the FREEDM system at the primary (high voltage) level while maintaining the efficiency of the system under varying operating conditions.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM).

### Recovery Act - Workforce Training for the Electric Power Sector

Mesut E. Baran, Alex Q. Huang, Subhashish Bhattacharya, Pam Page Carpenter
07/01/10 - 06/30/14

North Carolina State University will develop and implement an accelerated, professional Master of Engineering degree to educate the next generation electric power engineering workforce (which includes engineers, innovators, entrepreneurs, and industry leaders) who will be ready to move into leadership positions within the electric power industry and facilitate the transformation of the current power system into a national, clean-energy smart grid. The proposed program, Master of Engineering in Electric Power Systems (ME-EPS), is an innovative program which will give students a thorough understanding of the tools, methods, and practice of electric power engineering through an intensive educational experience directly applicable to an industry career. The degree will be suitable for a recent graduate, as well as experienced professionals seeking retraining to change careers or enhanced training to expand their career opportunities.

The proposed ME-EPS program will fill a critical need for electric power industry engineering staff development, as its courses will be carefully targeted to meet specific industry needs identified by a thorough needs assessment. The ME-EPS program goal is to provide a comprehensive professional graduate degree that encompasses a broad treatment of the engineering, management, and profession skills needed in industry. Hence, this new program is fundamentally different from other degree programs and professional "short courses" currently offered. The program will consist of a set of integrated courses that will cover both core power engineering topics, as well as new cross-disciplinary technical topics relevant to the clean-energy smart grid. The program integrates four main components:

i) Core power engineering topics integrated into three courses: Fundamentals of Power Engineering, Power System Operation and Control, and Power Distribution System Operation and Management.

ii) Cross-disciplinary courses for smart grid applications. These will be totally new courses not available in current engineering programs: Electric Power Generation; Power Electronics and Its Power System Applications; Communication and Cyber Security Systems for Smart Grid; and Distribution Systems and Smart Grid Applications.

iii) Hands-on-Experience on Smart Grid Applications: Each course will have a lab or a project to provide hands on experience. To further promote integration of concepts and provide hands on experience, there will be a capstone project.

iv) Professional Skills Training: To complement the engineering training and provide professional skills, the program will include three integrated courses: The Business of the Electric Utility Industry, Engineering Economics and Project Management, and Professional Skills.

The proposed program will be an intensive 10-month program to be taught in three sessions: a one month summer session focusing on fundamentals of power engineering, and two regular fall and spring semester sessions each with five classes. Thus, the second major outcome of the project will be the large number of engineers to be trained through this program with the skills urgently needed by the power sector. The proposed program will train and educate three cohorts of students averaging 20, 30 and 50 in Years 1 to 3, respectively. The graduates of this innovative program will be highly sought after in the industry which will be facing severe engineering shortages in the near future.

This project is sponsored by US Dept. of Energy (DOE).

### CIF: Small: Universal Signal Estimation from Noisy Measurements

Dror Zeev Baron
09/01/12 - 08/31/15

Motivation: A ubiquitous feature in many signal processing systems is to learn the input statistics from historical data. In these systems, Bayesian methods perform statistically optimal signal processing. However, there are applications including file compression, speech recognition, network monitoring, and compressed sensing in which it might be impractical to learn the statistics a priori. In such applications, a statistical approach that adapts to the data at hand must be used.

The information theory community has championed the use of universal algorithms, they achieve the best possible statistical performance asymptotically despite not knowing the input statistics.

These algorithms have had tremendous impact in lossless compression, where the goal is to describe data as succinctly as possible while allowing a decoder to reproduce the input perfectly. In sharp contrast, universal algorithms have had little impact on other areas.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### GOALI:Cooperative Integration of High Efficiency Multijunction Solar Cell Structures

Salah M. Bedair
10/01/11 - 09/30/14

We develop technique to improve the efficiency of multi-junction solar cell structure. The techniques make better use of the solar spectrum, so each cell: Ge-GaAs ?InGaP will pass the same short circuit current. This will move the effective band gap of both the middle and top cell to lower values. We will maintain the lattice matched conditions in this approach, avoiding defects that may compromise the quality of these materials, specially the top cell.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Growth of Low Defect Density III- Nitride Compounds on Nanowires

Salah M. Bedair
09/15/11 - 08/31/14

This is a Graduate Research Supplement (GRS) request is made to extend the support of a promising PhD graduate student of Hispanic origin to continue working in my research group. This supplement will be used in conjunction with our NSF project # 1105842 titled "Growth of low Defect Density III-N compounds on Nanowires". This supplement request will be used to provide the student stipend, health insurance, tuition, and for attending conferences.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Technology Enabling Ultra High Concentration Multi-Junction Cells

Salah M. Bedair, John R. Hauser
09/01/11 - 12/31/14

We propose to reduce the current cost of multijunction (MJ) solar cells by developing a robust tunnel junction (TJ) to connect the various sub-cells. This TJ is capable of operating at high solar concentration (~2000?e) with high peak current and minimal voltage drop across the TJ.

Tunnel Junction Problems and Proposed Approaches:

1) The properties of as-grown tunnel junctions (TJ) deteriorate due to high temperature exposure, during the growth of the middle and top cells, which make the MJ structure not suitable for high solar concentration.

Approach: Insert diffusion barriers and modify the band structure at the junction interface.

2) Fluctuations in the TJ properties due to non-uniform doping levels and the variation in the concentration optics affect the performance of the MJ solar structure.

Approach: Increase excess current by the manipulation of impurities in the highly doped films.

This project is sponsored by US Dept. of Energy (DOE).

### 15 kV SiC IGBT Power Modules for Grid Scale Power Conversion

Subhashish Bhattacharya, Alex Q. Huang, Julie Schwindt
09/01/10 - 04/30/14

Evaluation of 1MVA Transformer-less Intelligent Power Substation (TIPS) power converter topologies - based on 15kV SiC IGBTs. Develop control and controller implementation and controller validation for the 1MVA/100kVA Transformer-less Intelligent Power Substation (TIPS) power converter. Build and test the 100kVA bi-directional TIPS power converter. Performance evaluation and scale up efficiency estimations to 1MVA Transformer-less Intelligent Power Substation (TIPS) power converter.

This project is sponsored by Cree, Inc..

### 3-Phase Solid State Transformer, Center Core Project

Subhashish Bhattacharya
09/01/12 - 08/31/13

The main objective is to identify and investigate appropriate three-phase SST topologies for FREEDM systems GEH, and in general for medium-voltage applications. Specifically, this project looks into a Gen-III 3-phase SST rated 100kVA to be interfaced with 13.8kV grid and supply 480V, 3-phase loads. This is carried out by: (a) Conduct a literature review of existing topologies; (b) Select a small set of candidate topologies for this application; (c) Evaluate the topologies using detailed simulation; (d) Evaluate power losses; (e) Evaluate Si and SiC devices; (f) Study single-phase versus three-phase SSTs; (g) Create a low-voltage prototype of the most promising three-phase SST.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM).

### A Nationwide Consortium of Universities to Revitalize Electric Power Engineering Education by State-of-the-Art Laboratories

Subhashish Bhattacharya
07/30/10 - 03/31/14

1. Attend and actively participate in yearly workshops involving all consortium universities presenting our experiences and new developments to the other participants.

2. As much as possible, disseminate the UMN curriculum to other regional universities, technical and community colleges.

3. Submit a brief quarterly progress report to the University of Minnesota who will provide an online form for the report.

This project is sponsored by University of Minnesota.

### Development of Electrical Power Management System of Small Satellites

Subhashish Bhattacharya
04/01/13 - 07/31/14

This proposed work focuses on the design development of a flexible & scalable digital power management system that integrates advanced batteries and solar cells into small satellites.

This project is sponsored by University of Florida.

### Fast Responding Voltage Regulator / Mini-STATCOM (VAR Compensator) with Direct 13.8kV Connection and a Bi-Directional Energy Storage Capability

Subhashish Bhattacharya, Alex Q. Huang, Mesut E. Baran
06/25/11 - 09/30/13

This project proposes to develop and deploy a distributed fast voltage regulation system to accommodate high penetration of renewable generation. The specific objectives of this project are to produce an integrated power electronics system for the objective of providing fast voltage regulation, with a specific emphasis on the speed of response required to respond to grid disturbances under high penetration of fluctuating and intermittent Distributed Energy Resources (DERs). We plan to develop and demonstrate a solution which makes it economical to place distributed Dynamic VAR Compensator systems (DVCs) throughout the distribution grid, in order to improve efficiency, power quality and stability for Smart Grid distribution systems and ultimately support a transition from centralized voltage regulation to distributed regulation. In addition, this project will develop distribution system algorithm that will allow improved and controllable voltage profiles within all voltage regulation zones of the distribution grid. Implementation of the algorithm would enhance interoperability between the fast DVC and existing (slower) voltage control devices (such as LTCs, voltage regulators and power factor correction capacitors) allowing higher penetration of DERs and possible micro-grid operations.

This project is sponsored by Varentec, LLC.

### Power Conversion Systems (PCS) Performance and Reliability Characterization During Value Added Functionality

Subhashish Bhattacharya, Julie Schwindt
03/01/12 - 12/30/14

In the second phase of the project, the reliability model for the ESS (Energy Storage System) powered inverter tied to the power grid shall be expanded to include both voltage support and frequency support to the grid. Thermal and electrical models for capacitors shall be refined; possibilities of manufacturer test information and impedance spectroscopy shall be investigated and incorporated in the models. Additionally, for the DC link capacitor a comparative investigation shall be made between DC film and DC electrolytic component types (weakest link in the converter for failures and lifetime). The work of the Phase 1 comparison between the baseline ESS operation and the addition of voltage support value-added functionality shall be expanded to also include dynamic performance characterization. In addition, the frequency support functionality will be investigated with detailed generator and governor-exciter models, and PCS converter specifications and their performance characterization.

This project is sponsored by Sandia National Laboratories.

### Resilient Multiterminal HVDC Using High Voltage High Frequency Electronics Capability

Subhashish Bhattacharya
04/04/12 - 01/22/15

GE Global Research in collaboration with North Carolina State University and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute proposes a resilient multi-terminal current-link based HVDC transmission technology, to enable dynamic routing of electric power with high efficiency and reliability. The proposed technology is modular which allows system scalability to achieve any voltage and power rating. Each module is based on a high-voltage high-frequency power conversion topology in which the galvanic isolation is achieved by a high-frequency (20-50kHz) step-up transformer. Hence, the low-frequency grid side transformer is eliminated which results significant reduction in the system footprint. Due to current-link based power transmission, the proposed technology is naturally fault tolerant and hence it is suitable for multi-terminal HVDC system.

The nature of the proposed work includes both ?proof of concept? and ?early stage device prototyping? categories. Following tasks will be executed to satisfy the technical performance targets of the proposed technology:

- Circuit level analysis, design and control of the module

- Steady-state and dynamic analysis of the system

- Real-time demonstration of the system based on a commercial RTDS platform

- Experimental prototype and demonstration of a three terminal, 10kV, 100kW each, multi-terminal HVDC network

- Demonstration of fault modes and fail-safe operation

This project is sponsored by GE Global Research.

### Solid State and Hybrid DC Circuit Breaker for Multi-Terminal DC Networks

Subhashish Bhattacharya
02/25/13 - 12/31/14

The goal of this project is to develop concepts, technology development and laboratory based scaled prototype implementation of Solid State Circuit Breaker (SSCB) ? including Hybrid SSCB, for both AC and DC applications. The objective also is to focus on the DC SSCB development for both MVDC and HVDC grids.

The necessity of SSCB for AC applications is from the requirements of fast control and co-ordination in meshed ac transmission systems ? more so, with the integration of dynamically changing renewable energy resources such as large-scale penetration of wind energy into some transmission corridors. In such cases, the problem may be compounded by the presence of FACTS devices for voltage regulation and power flow control and the required co-ordination under dynamic conditions.

The technology development for DC SSCB is becoming very important to the active research and technology development in both MV and HV DC grids. The HVDC grids concept is mainly motivated by integration of large-scale off-shore wind farms and the recent concepts of Multi-terminal (MT) DC grids for power transmission and then MV based MTDC grids for power distribution to large cities.

The research on fast DC breakers is a 45+ year old topic: challenges at fundamental level - Fast operation (less than 5ms) without zero crossing; - Absorb considerable system energy GE Corporate R&D tested one in 1975-78, 400kV, 2kA; 10kA breaker by Toshiba, and other R&D labs 70-80s?. 2010 onward Hybrid DC breakers required for Multi-terminal DC system requires fault/pre-fault system restoration in less than 5ms.

The focus of this project will be to develop concepts, technology development and laboratory based prototype implementation of Solid State Circuit Breaker (SSCB) ? including Hybrid SSCB - for both AC and DC applications. The ac and dc applications will include concept development at both distribution and transmission voltages.

This project is sponsored by Electric Power Research Institute, Inc..

### Solid State Transformer Study and Development

Subhashish Bhattacharya
07/01/13 - 07/24/14

To study the SST architectures trade space encompassing topologies, device types, cost, size and weight for medium voltage level applications.

The feasibility study of different topologies of SST based on switch count and rating (both peak voltage and current), switching and conduction losses of different SiC and Si devices, size, weight and functionally of these topologies will be done. These topologies are:

(1) AC to AC single stage converter - for direct power conversion

(2) AC-DC and DC-AC two stage converter – with a non-isolated DC stage

(3) AC-DC, DC-DC and DC-AC three-stage converter – with high-frequency transformer isolated DC-DC stage which can allow connection of DC side energy storage or PV interface and DC loads

This project is sponsored by GRIDCO Systems.

### Biophotonic Sleep Tracker

Alper Yusuf Bozkurt
07/01/13 - 01/31/15

A smart bandage and headband with biophotonic properties will be demonstrated to help sorting the stages of sleep and track sleep debt. The feasibility of the developed prototype will be tested on human subjects in a sleep laboratory.

This project is sponsored by Chancellor's Innovation Fund (CIF).

### CPS: Synergy: Collaborative Research: Cyborg Insect Networks for Exploration and Mapping (CINEMa)

Alper Yusuf Bozkurt, Edgar J Lobaton, Mihail L. Sichitiu
10/01/12 - 09/30/15

Autonomous navigation in unknown and dynamic environments has been a major challenge for synthetic mobile robotic agents. On the other hand, insects can easily solve such complex navigational problems and demonstrate remarkably stable and optimized locomotion skills in almost any environment. This project aims to develop a mobile sensor network where insects are used as mobile biological-robotic (biobotic) nodes. Insects, in fact, build a ?natural? sensor network through the use of their biological sensing organs and release of chemical, mechanical and optical cues to communicate the information to the rest of the group. In the scope of this project, a novel ?cyber-physical? communication network will be established among the individual insect in addition to the aforementioned natural one. For this, insects will be equipped with synthetic electronic sensors to sense additional cues, neuromuscular stimulation systems to direct the control of the insect and microcontrollers with radios to establish an RF link between the insects. This novel network will enable operation of insect biobots in complicated and uncertain dynamic environments for applications such as environmental sensing and search-and-rescue operations after natural disasters. The unique interdisciplinary nature of this project will help us to reach to younger generations and train them to be able to look at engineering problems from a cyberphysical systems point of view. Planned activities include development of lab modules and demos by undergraduate and graduate students to teach K-12 students and their teachers through our on-going collaborations with educational partners. These demos will also be instrumental during our nation level efforts to promote graduate education to underrepresented minority students.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### CPS: Synergy: Integrated Sensing and Control Algorithms for Computer-Assisted Training (Computer Assisted Training Systems (CATS) for Dogs)

David L Roberts, Alper Yusuf Bozkurt, Barbara Lynn Sherman
10/01/13 - 09/30/16

We propose to develop tools and techniques that will enable more effective two-way communication between dogs and handlers. We will work to create non-invasive physiological and inertial measuring devices that will transmit real-time information wirelessly to a computer. We will also develop technologies that will enable the computer to train desired behaviors using positive reinforcement without the direct input from humans. We will work to validate our approach using laboratory animals in the CVM as well as with a local assistance dog training organization working as a consultant.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Low Power and Flexible Physiological Sensors

Alper Yusuf Bozkurt
09/01/12 - 08/31/14

The aim of this project is to provide a wearable pulse oximetry system in the form factors of a bandage and/or armband for self-powered and continuous assessment of key vital signs (arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate, and potentially blood pressure and respiratory rate).

This project is sponsored by NCSU Advanced Self Powered Systems of Sensors and Technologies (ASSIST) Center.

### A Measurement Based Framework for Dynamic Equivalencing of Large-Scale Power Systems Using Synchrophasors

Aranya Chakrabortty
09/01/10 - 04/30/15

1. To perform rigorous data analysis and information extraction from PMU data in order to implement the identi cation algorithms in real-time. The PI and his group have been provided with real PMU data from the US west coast grid by Southern California Edison, Inc., which particularly calls in for a signi cant amount of data analysis.

2. To develop a visualization software platform by which these algorithms can be presented in a visually attractive way to facilitate quick understanding of power system disturbance events by the system operators.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### CAREER: Wide-Area Control of Large Power Systems Using Distributed Synchrophasors: Where Network Theory Meets Power System Dynamics

Aranya Chakrabortty
03/01/11 - 02/29/16

This NSF-CAREER proposal strives for novel and transformative approaches to formulate, investigate and validate the almost untouched problem of wide-area damping control of large-scale electric power systems using synchronized phasor measurements. Following the US Northeast blackout of 2003, tremendous research efforts have been devoted to the visualization and postmortem analyses of Synchrophasors, leading to a formative understanding of how the Wide-area Measurement System (WAMS) technology may be used for dynamic health monitoring of complex power system networks. However, owing partly to a slowness in learning, and partly to a shortage of control system engineers in the WAMS community, no rigorous research has yet been done to transcend from monitoring to the next phase - namely, feedback control. With over 132 Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) currently operating in the US West Coast power system, and over 60 PMUs operating in the Eastern Interconnect, producing over 2 billion data samples per day, control by human operators is obviously not sustainable. An autonomous, highly distributed, bandwidth-efficient, real-time control system is needed to shape the oscillatory dynamics of these interconnections using Synchrophasor-feedback.

This project will make a step towards building such control systems, using concepts of nonlinear circuit theory, fundamental physics, and graph theory.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Collaborative Research: CPS: Synergy: Distributed Asynchronous Algorithms and Software Systems for Wide-Area Monitoring of Power Systems

Aranya Chakrabortty, Frank Mueller
10/01/13 - 09/30/16

The objective of this NSF-CPS Synergy proposal is to develop a distributed algorithmic frame- work, supported by a highly fault-tolerant software system, for executing critical transmission-level operations of the North American power grid using gigantic volumes of Synchrophasor data. As the number of Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) increases to more than thousands in the next 4-5 years, it is rather intuitive that the current state-of-the-art centralized communication and information processing architecture of Wide-Area Measurement System (WAMS) will no longer be sustainable under such data-explosion, and a completely distributed cyber-physical architecture will need to be developed. The North American Synchrophasor Initiative (NASPI) is currently address- ing this architectural aspect by developing new communication and computing protocols through NASPInet and Phasor Gateway. However, almost no attention has yet been paid to perhaps the most critical consequence of this envisioned distributed architecture - namely distributed algorithms. Our primary task, therefore, will be to develop parallel computational methods for solving real-time wide-area monitoring and control problems with analytical investigation of their stability, convergence and robustness properties, followed by their implementation and testing against extraneous malicious attacks using our WAMS-RTDS testbed at NC State.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Development of a Multi-User Network Testbed for Wide-Area Monitoring and Control of Power Systems via Synchrophasors

Aranya Chakrabortty, Mesut E. Baran, Pam Page Carpenter
06/30/13 - 06/30/15

This project will develop an integrated research and educational framework for different applications of the Wide-area Measurement System (WAMS) technology. A combined research teaching laboratory will be developed where real-time digital simulators will be integrated with Phasor Measurement Units to create a hardware-in-loop simulation testbed, and artificial PMU data will be transmitted across NC State, Duke University and UNC Chapel Hill through a dedicated fibre optic communication network. Additionally, real PMU data from Duke Energy and Southern California Edison will be used to teach graduate students how wide-area monitoring and control algorithms can be developed in real-time using the WAMS-RTDS testbed.

This project is sponsored by US Dept. of Energy (DOE).

### Distributed Data-Centric Algorithms for Next-Generation Transmission Network Management Systems

Aranya Chakrabortty, Frank Mueller
08/16/13 - 08/15/14

The objective of this ABB project is to develop a distributed algorithmic framework, supported by a highly fault-tolerant software system, for executing critical transmission-level operations of the North American power grid using gigantic volumes of Synchrophasor and SCADA data in tomorrow?s transmission network management systems. As the number of Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) as well as other Intelligent Electronic Devices (IED) increases to several thousands in the next 4-5 years, it is rather intuitive that the current state-of-the-art centralized communication and information processing architecture will no longer be sustainable under such data-explosion, and a completely distributed cyber-physical architecture will need to be developed. Our primary task, therefore, will be to develop parallel computational methods for solving real-time wide-area monitoring and control problems with analytical investigation of their stability, convergence and robustness properties, followed by their implementation and testing against extraneous malicious attacks using our WAMS-RTDS testbed at the FREEDM Systems Center at NC State.

This project is sponsored by ABB, Inc.

### SEP Collaborative: Integrating Heterogeneous Energy Resources For Sustainable Power Networks - A Systems Approach

Aranya Chakrabortty
09/15/12 - 08/31/16

This project will take a unique approach in examining how management and control of large-scale and distributed energy resources can contribute to both stabilization and improving the performance of for power systems with high penetration of renewable energy. The research will involve a system theoretic end-to-end analysis from detailed characterization of the energy sources through propagation of these inputs through the power transmission and distribution network. An important aspect of the proposed research is the ability of this interdisciplinary team to examine not only the technical and physical system challenges but to include the related regulatory, policy and market challenges that must be dealt with in order to implement any proposed power system changes.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Wide-Area Monitoring and Control of WECC Transfer Paths Using Real-Time Digital Simulations

Aranya Chakrabortty, Subhashish Bhattacharya
10/01/11 - 12/31/13

The objective of this research project is to develop an experimental framework for testing transient stability, frequency response and oscillation damping of the US Western Interconnection using a Real-time Digital Simulator (RTDS). We will construct detailed dynamic models of the WECC power system, starting from the major generation clusters in Alberta, Washington and Oregon to the load clusters in Southern California, Montana and Arizona with intermediate voltage support at appropriate points. The impact of operating conditions, unforeseen contingencies, and intermittency of renewable generation on the inter-area oscillations in WECC will be studied and validated using an RTDS based emulation framework.

This project is sponsored by Southern California Edison Co. (SCE).

### Big Data Framework for Battery SOF and SOH Estimation

Mo-Yuen Chow
02/01/14 - 01/31/15

To collaborate with SAIT at Samsung to pioneer the application of Big Data technologies for battery applications in PHEV/ PEV and become a leader in this area.

We propose to develop an effective and robust framework to discover and analyze the factors that are important in SOF and SOH estimation of the batteries with:

a) Qualitative demonstration of the relationships between the SOF/SOH estimation parameters and the available data,

b) Quantitative evaluation of the relativeness, importance and required resolution of different unstructured data types to refine the estimation performance.

This project is sponsored by Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. - Korea.

### Center of Excellence in the Area of Human and Robotic Structures Technologies for Lunar and Planetary Exploration

Matthew K. Ronning, Mo-Yuen Chow, Harvey T. Banks, Ashok Gopalarathnam, Vinod K. Saxena, Gregory D. Buckner, Mohammad Noori, Fuh G. Yuan, Jack R. Edwards, Fred R. DeJarnette, Robert T. Nagel
10/01/02 - 09/25/17

No abstract currently available.

This project is sponsored by National Institute of Aerospace.

### Collaborative Research: GOALI: Ais Gene Library Based Real-time Resource Allocation On Time-sensitive Large-scale Multi-rate Systems

Mo-Yuen Chow
09/01/08 - 08/31/13

In this project, we propose to use Gene Library to classify and detect abnormality in vehicle movements in various traffic environments and to provide optimal real-time sampling rate adaptations and emergency interventions. The gene library stores relevant information in the memory for real-time fetching to avoid on demand optimization and computation. Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) optimization is used to tune the gene library so that the gene library can be used in real-time as well as can adapt to its environment for optimal solutions. The primary purpose of IDEA is to prevent accident caused by abnormal behavior of the impaired drivers during driving. At this phase, the attention is directed at assistive technology which warns the driver and drivers in the impact neighborhood of potential safety problem and generates the necessary corrective commands only under emergency situations. In order to achieve this goal, we propose to use the Intelligent Space (iSpace) concept, which is to integrate globally distributed sensor agents, distributed actuator agents, and distributed controller agents over networks to make optimal local decisions which cannot otherwise be achieved.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Distributed Control of FREEDM System (former Distributed Grid Intelligence)

Mo-Yuen Chow
09/01/08 - 08/31/14

This project will investigate a FREEDM system plug-and-play function for automating updates in feeder circuit topology and impedance modeling when a new device is added or the circuit is reconfigured.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM).

### I-Corps: iSpace Technology for Novel Traffic Light Managements

Mo-Yuen Chow
04/15/13 - 09/30/14

The iSpace technology developed by Advanced Diagnosis, Automation, and Control (ADAC) Lab at the North Carolina State University (NCSU) provides a solution to meet the demands for efficiency, scalability, security and robustness in the control and management of cyber-physical industrial applications, such as transportation systems, energy management system and power grids. In this proposal, we focus on applying iSpace technology to substantially improve the traffic signal management performance in transportation systems. Such a solution will reduce traffic congestion, fuel consumption, gas emissions and driver frustration by minimizing vehicle stops and delays at intersections. Therefore, we plan to investigate and identify the potential customers and the appropriate markets and test the commercial feasibility of iSpace technology through this Innovation Corps project.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Verification of FREEDM System Control Robustness

Mo-Yuen Chow
09/01/13 - 08/31/14

Verification of FREEDM System Control Robustness

Abstract: A rigorous system level analysis on the stability, robustness and convergence of distributed control algorithms on FREEDM systems considering the interactions between the Distributed Control algorithms and the FREEDM Power Management and Control through SST

This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM).

### Is Wireless Channel Dependable for Security Provisioning?

Huaiyu Dai, Peng Ning
08/15/13 - 07/31/16

Wireless security is receiving increasing attention as wireless

systems become a key component in our daily life as well as critical cyber-physical systems. Recent progress in this area exploits physical layer characteristics to offer enhanced and sometimes the only available security mechanisms. The success of such security mechanisms depends crucially on the correct modeling of underlying wireless propagation. It is widely accepted that wireless channels decorrelate fast over space, and half a wavelength is the key distance metric used in existing wireless physical layer security mechanisms for security assurance. We believe that this channel correlation model is incorrect in general: it leads to wrong hypothesis about the inference capability of a passive adversary and results in false sense of security, which will expose the legitimate systems to severe threats with little awareness. In this project, we seek to understand the fundamental limits in passive inference of wireless channel characteristics, and further advance our knowledge and practice in wireless security.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### TC: Small: Defending against Insider Jammers in DSSS- and FH-Based Wireless Communication Systems

Mladen A. Vouk, Huaiyu Dai, Peng Ning
09/01/10 - 08/31/14

Jamming resistance is crucial for applications where reliable wireless

communication is required, such as rescue missions and military

techniques such as Frequency Hopping (FH) and Direct Sequence Spread

Spectrum (DSSS) have been used as countermeasures against jamming

attacks. However, these anti-jamming techniques require that senders

and receivers share a secret key to communicate with each

other, and thus are vulnerable to insider attacks where the

The objective of this project is to develop a suite of techniques

to defend against insider jammers in DSSS and FH based wireless

communication systems. We will develop novel and efficient

insider-jamming-resistant techniques for both DSSS- and FH-based

wireless communication systems. Our proposed research consists of two

thrusts. The first thrust is to develop novel spreading/despreading

techniques, called DSD-DSSS (which stands for DSSS based on

Delayed Seed Disclosure), to enhance DSSS-based wireless communication

to defend against insider jamming threats, while the second thrust is

to develop a new approach, called USD-FH (which stands for FH

based on Uncoordinated Seed Disclosure), to enable sender and

receivers using FH to communicate without pre-establishing any common

secret hopping pattern. A key property of our new approaches is that

they do not depend on any secret shared by the sender and receivers. Our solution

has the potential to significantly enhance the anti-jamming capability of today?s wireless communication

systems.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Toward a General Automatic Reasoning Framework for Networked Systems

Huaiyu Dai
07/01/10 - 06/30/14

This work intends to contribute to an automatic reasoning framework for networked systems through research in two areas: structured variational methods and their distributed implementation, and distributed clustering. Interaction and integration of these two components will also be explored, leading to a holistic cross-layer approach for automatic reasoning in networked systems.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### CSR:Small: Enabling Aggressive Voltage Scaling for Real-Time and Embedded Systems with Inexpensive Yet Efficiant Power Conversion

Alexander G. Dean, Subhashish Bhattacharya, Julie Schwindt
08/15/11 - 07/31/14

The goal of this project is to improve the energy efficiency of cost-sensitive embedded systems through aggressive voltage scaling. We seek to increase (at minimal cost) the number of separate voltage domains in a system and run each as efficiently as possible. Dynamic voltage and frequency scaling methods are standard on systems which can afford the additional costs to save the energy. Supporting multiple voltage domains incurs overhead such as additional voltage regulators/converters and level translators. Improving energy efficiency allows a designer to extend a systems operational life, reduce battery size and weight, and use more sophisticated (and computationally intense) control methods. Recent advances in subthreshold voltage processor design offer tremendous opportunities to reduce energy requirements for

computation. Energy-scavenging, ultracapacitor and wireless power transmission technologies are rapidly advancing, further increasing opportunities.

We plan to reduce costs by moving control into software and general-purpose hardware on common microcontrollers. A second challenge is further reducing system cost, size and weight by removing noise-filtering components. When an SMPS switches current on and off through the inductor, it generates wideband harmonic noise. We will use real-time system approaches to prevent SMPS switching activity from coinciding with noise-sensitive operations. There are additional challenges: determining practical power supply and system architectures, adapting existing methods in power-aware real-time and non-real-time scheduling to such systems, implementing this mixed-criticality system with robust software in a practical way on real hardware which partitions critical code from application code, that software becomes critical), and evaluating the trade-offs among the many design parameters.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### CAREER: Complex Polarization Gratings? Extreme Fresnel Zone Plates, Agile Vortex Beam Tools, and Enhanced Distributed-Feedback

Michael James Escuti
02/01/10 - 01/31/15

This request is to support one NCSU undergraduate student (Scott Gaffer, a rising, double-major senior) to work on research directly associated with the activities carried out by the PI under the currently funded grant.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Phase II Telecom Polarization Gratings

Michael James Escuti
06/01/13 - 09/30/13

The PI and team will investigate polymer Polarization Gratings (PGs) and other Liquid Crystal (LC) elements for use within telecommunications photonics systems. We will optimize diffraction efficiency, attenuation, polarization mode dispersion, and wavelength dependent loss.

This project is sponsored by ImagineOptix Corporation.

### Yr 6a Development of Complex Birefringent Optical Elements

Michael James Escuti
09/01/13 - 06/30/14

The PI and team will investigate polymer Polarization Gratings (PGs), Geometric Phase Holograms (GPHs), and multi-twist retarders (MTRs) optimized for and integrated into Liquid Crystal (LC) projector systems, optical filters, and other devices. The target is to employ optical techniques and materials improvements to develop these complex optical elements, and additional new ones, which produce enhanced performance or enable commercially viable fabrication.

This project is sponsored by ImagineOptix Corporation.

### Yr V Development of Complex Birefringent Optical Elements

Michael James Escuti
09/01/12 - 08/31/13

The PI and team will investigate Geometric Phase Holograms (GPHs), polymer Polarization Gratings (PGs), and multi-twist retarders (MTRs) optimized for and integrated into projector systems, optical filters, and other devices. The target is to employ optical techniques and materials improvements to develop these complex optical elements, and additional new ones, which produce enhanced performance or enable commercially viable fabrication. As part of the effort, the NCSU team will coordinate and interact with the sponsor and with various third party vendors and partners, who are engaged by the sponsor, in order to facilitate access to advice, materials, components, fabrication tools, and independent verification supporting the research goals.

This project is sponsored by ImagineOptix Corporation.

### NEDG: Efficient Design and Control of Heterogeneous Mobile Networks:Beyond Poisson Regime

Do Young Eun
09/01/08 - 08/31/13

Over the last several decades, mobility has been central to various applications, ranging from the classical problems of searching for a moving target and rescue mission in military and disaster settings, to deploying mobile ad-hoc/sensor networks for surveillance and data communication over hostile terrain and underwater. In particular, recent technological advances in communicating/sensing devices as well as abundant network protocols designed for mobile ad-hoc/sensor networks have opened up a new possibility for viable networks with satisfying performance over such unpredictable, mobile, and disadvantaged environments. While the random mobility pattern of mobile nodes in these networks has posed serious challenges and been considered as the main source of uncertainty and disruption of communication links among nodes, the mobility can also enable us to achieve reliable and predictable performance, if it is properly controlled and actively exploited.

The long-term goal of this proposed research is to develop a unified methodology for efficient protocol design and control of nodes in heterogeneous MANETs under non-Poisson contacts. While the non-Poisson contacts and inherent heterogeneity among mobile nodes pose serious challenge, we take this challenge as a golden opportunity toward `high-performance' MANETs, by exploiting unknown heterogeneity and non-Poisson dynamics in an adaptive but rigorous manner. Our goal further extends to the use of mobile nodes with controllable mobility that can autonomously exploit the changing diversity in non-Poisson heterogeneous dynamics of nodes' mobility.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### NeTS: Small: Distributed and Efficient Randomized Algorithms for Large Networks

Do Young Eun
08/01/12 - 07/31/15

Designing efficient and distributed algorithms has been central to almost all large networked systems. Examples include crawling-based sampling of large online social networks, statistical estimation or inference from massive scale of networked data, efficient searching algorithms in unstructured peerto-peer networks, randomized routing and duty-cycling algorithm for better performance-energy tradeoff in wireless sensor networks, and distributed scheduling algorithms leading to maximal

throughput and smaller delay in multihop wireless networks, to list a few. Except for small-sized, static networks for which centralized design is not much of an issue, virtually all large networks necessarily demand distributed algorithms for inherent lack of global information and also randomized algorithms for autonomous load balancing and their resilience/robustness against possible points of failure/attacks, yet often with close-to-optimal performance.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Advanced Silicon Circuits and Systems for Emerging Millimeter-Wave Markets

Brian Allan Floyd
11/01/11 - 10/31/14

Under this program, AKM engineers will be trained in millimeter-wave integrated circuit design as visiting scholars and then AKM and NC State will work jointly to develop advanced millimeter-wave circuits and systems using silicon integrated circuit technology.

This project is sponsored by Asahi Kasei Microdevices Corp..

### Built-in Test for Power-Efficient Millimeter-Wave Phased Arrays

Brian Allan Floyd
03/01/11 - 07/31/14

The large available bandwidth and/or the small wavelengths at millimeter-wave(mmWave) frequencies make possible large-volume applications such as 60-GHz communications, 77-GHz radar, and 94-GHz imaging. Within these applications, there are requirements to either steer a beam around an obstruction (60 GHz) or focus energy in a specific direction (77/94 GHz); therefore, mmWave phased-arrays in silicon is an important and growing commercial research area. Critical work remains related to power reduction of the array elements and cost-effective test, both to be pursued in this project. First, significant power reduction is needed for the phased arrays to make them viable in battery-powered devices or to reduce heat-sinking requirements. Second, since test can dominate overall cost, built-in-self-test techniques must be developed for the phased array to reduce the time of test of a complete array, to reduce the need for mmWave test equipment, and to enable phased-array manufacturing test at both wafer and package-level. In this project, a low-power 60-GHz four-element phased-array transmitter prototype with built-in-self-test will be developed in 0.12-m SiGe BiCMOS technology and then scalable test techniques will be developed for this demonstration platform which are applicable to 60-GHz radios, 77-GHz radars, 94-GHz imagers, and even >100-GHz sensors.

This project is sponsored by University of Texas - Dallas.

Brian Allan Floyd, Jacob James Adams, Brian L. Hughes
09/15/13 - 08/31/17

The goal of this project is use information-theoretic principles to design compact broadband multi-

antenna receivers that exhibit the best possible tradeoff between power and bandwidth efficiency.

Our overall approach is to develop antenna structures, matching networks and communication

algorithms that act in concert to maximize the capacity of the underlying wireless channel. Three

main topics are addressed: (a) design of novel, co-located antennas that seek to capture the most

informative modes of the incident electromagnetic field; (b) design of agile, adaptive broadband

antenna matching networks with the ability to optimize performance in the presence of frequency-

selective coupling and noise; (c) information-theoretic criteria to guide the design of antenna arrays

that maximize capacity of the resulting channel, and (d) communication and signal processing

algorithms that sense and adjust the matching networks to changing channel conditions.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Efficient Linearized All-Silicon Transmitter ICs (Asymetrical Multilevel Outphasing - NCSU Phase II)

Brian Allan Floyd
06/01/12 - 08/31/14

In this program, we will investigate circuit and system architectures to realize a highly-efficient millimeter-wave out-phased transmitter using 45-nm SOI CMOS technology and operating at 94 GHz.

This project is sponsored by Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

### Fully-Integrated Tunable Filters Employing Synthetic Linear Interference Delay

Brian Allan Floyd
07/01/12 - 11/30/13

Circuit and radio front-end architectures leading to a universal channel selection filter for the 700-3000 MHz range will be studied. The filter will employ synthetic linear interference delay which provides frequency selectivity based on the creation of an interference pattern arising from delay and phase alignment between between parallel passive and active channels. Also, inteference cancellation techniques will be studied to improve dynamic range. A fully-integrated filter prototype will be designed in silicon, including a high-accuracy phase shifter, a limiting amplifier, and low-noise tunable bandpass or notch elements.

This project is sponsored by Physical Devices LLC.

### Interferometric Imaging Using Reconfigured Millimeter-Wave Phased Arrays In Silicon (IIRIS)

Brian Allan Floyd
07/07/11 - 07/06/14

The "Interferometric imaging using Repurposed mIllimeter-wave phased arrayS (IRIS)" research program will develop techniques to enable the addition of imaging capabilities to existing defense-related communication or radar phased-array platforms. This hardware re-use approach to imaging eliminates the payload associated with a traditional millimeter-wave passive imager, which will allow for longer flight times for unmanned airborn vehicles (UAVs) while adding a valuable imaging, navigation, and surveillance capability. The repurposing of the existing phased array will be accomplished through the implementation of code-division multiplexing together with interference-pattern based imaging (interferometry). Architectural and performance trade-offs will be explored and a feasibility study will be completed. Finally, a 94-GHz phased-array circuit prototype will be designed and fabricated to demonstrate the program results.

This project is sponsored by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).

### Low Power Potentiostats for Electrochemical Sensing

Brian Allan Floyd
09/01/12 - 08/31/13

A low-power potentiastat circuit will be developed in CMOS technology to be used for electrochemical sensing. We will first work with the sensor team to devise system-level specifications for the potentiostat and then investigate fundamental trade-offs between power consumption, speed, and accuracy for various circuit topologies. Based on this analysis, we will design and simulate an integrated circuit prototype targeting a 0.25-um or 0.18-um TSMC fabrication processes.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Advanced Self Powered Systems of Sensors and Technologies (ASSIST) Center.

### Radio Design for Mobile Millimeter-wave Broadband

Brian Allan Floyd
02/01/12 - 01/31/14

The available bandwidth and reduced wavelengths at Ka band (27-40 GHz) and 60 GHz enable gigabit-per-second communications for mobile millimeter-wave broadband (MMB) networks using compact beamforming antenna arrays. A sponsored research program is underway between Samsung and North Carolina State University (NCSU) to investigate phased-array radio solutions at 28GHz and 60GHz for potential use in future handheld devices. In years 1-2, efficient power amplifiers and phase shifters were developed at 28 GHz. In year 3, our work will be extended to include compact, scalable 60-GHz phased-arrays in CMOS.

This project is sponsored by Samsung Information Systems America Inc. (SISA) ( formerly Samsung Telecommunications America).

### 3D X86 Heterogeneous Core Stack

Paul D. Franzon, William R. Davis, Eric Rotenberg
11/12/12 - 12/31/14

Design and build 3D X86 Heterogeneous Core Stack

This project is sponsored by Intel Corporation.

### 3D-Enabled Customizable Embedded Computer

Paul D. Franzon, Eric Rotenberg, William R. Davis, James Tuck, Huiyang Zhou, Steven Lipa
09/19/12 - 02/14/18

The proposed effort will investigate new approaches to building ultra low power computers.

This project is sponsored by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).

### Algorithms and Structures For Self Healing Circuits (SHAMROC)

Paul D. Franzon, Mo-Yuen Chow, Michael B. Steer
07/29/09 - 12/31/13

Create tools and methods to increase the lifetime of RF and Radar chips.

This project is sponsored by Raytheon.

### ASSIST System Integration and Deployment

Paul D. Franzon
09/01/12 - 11/30/13

In year 1, we will conduct short cycle loops to build, test and adjust an integrated demonstrator, largely using COTS components in order to quickly mount the learning curve for building an integrated system platform in year 3. After sub-system assembly, as series of tests will be conducted at NCSU and then at UNC to determine the utility of the bundled system. After this first round of test and redesign, more intensive studies will be conducted at UNC-CH to determine the medical effectiveness of the system. This will lead to a full analysis of system potential and prioritization of research needs for a complete ASSIST system. Subsequent rounds of redesign and experimentation will be conducted as time permits. From the experiments conducted here, it is anticipated that a more detailed chip specification will be producible in order to guide chip design. This is anticipated to be a year two activity but preliminary specifications will be identified in year 1.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Advanced Self Powered Systems of Sensors and Technologies (ASSIST) Center.

### Binary MultiMode Interconnect for High Density Chip to Chip Communications

Paul D. Franzon
07/01/11 - 06/30/14

We will investigate advanced schemes to reduce chip to chip crosstalk and thus permits denser systems to be built

This project is sponsored by Semiconductor Research Corp..

### CSR: Medium: Computing via Monolithic Three Dimensional Assembly of Novel Floating Gate Transistors and Thin Film Semiconductors

Paul D. Franzon, Veena Misra, Neil DiSpigna, Eric Rotenberg, John F. Muth
08/01/11 - 07/31/14

Work will be conducted on a new unified memory device.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Leveraging Commercial Flows for Heterogeneous Integration

Paul D. Franzon, William R. Davis, Michael B. Steer, Brian Allan Floyd
05/06/13 - 05/05/16

NCSU, Sandia and Mentor Graphics Inc. will develop thermal and stress management flows for heterogeneous 3DIC.

This project is sponsored by US Army - Research, Development and Engineering Command (RDECOM).

### Modular, Testable, Tightly Coupled 3D Implementation of a Heterogenous Processor

Paul D. Franzon, William R. Davis, Eric Rotenberg
07/01/11 - 08/31/16

Implement a 3D Intel compatible processor

This project is sponsored by Intel Corporation.

### Range Enhanced RFID

Paul D. Franzon
07/01/13 - 06/30/14

The ability of a new circuit technology to enhance the range of RFID systems will be demonstrated.

This project is sponsored by Chancellor's Innovation Fund (CIF).

### Thermal-System Codesign of a Mobile Application, CESR Core Project

Paul D. Franzon, William R. Davis
07/01/11 - 05/15/14

NCSU will investigate statistical modeling of on-chip power for the purposes of thermal performance estimation.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Center for Efficient, Scalable and Reliable Computing.

### Web Support for IEEE 3DIC Conference

Paul D. Franzon
11/01/12 - 12/31/13

NCSU shall update and maintain the IEEE 3DIC Conference in support of the meeting to be held in September, 2013.

This project is sponsored by IEEE.

### PSD and Systems Packaging Development

Douglas C Hopkins
09/01/13 - 08/31/14

Primary goals are to demonstrate a high-efficiency integrated power stage for a 3-phase SST, explore advanced packaging techniques using additive manufacturing, and develop full-power testing capability for PSD SiC and GaN devices

This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM).

### Development of Stationary DESDs

Srdjan Miodrag Lukic, Alex Q. Huang, Mo-Yuen Chow
09/01/13 - 08/31/14

The objective of the DESD Subthrust is to develop intelligent, modular, reliable, efficient, high power and energy density plug-and-play DESD to support the FREEDM and traditional grid energy storage applications

This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM).

### Energy Management for Harvesting and Storage

Alex Q. Huang
09/01/12 - 08/31/13

The ASSIST system needs are to be powered by an Energy Harvesting and Management sub-system, which can eliminate the need for batteries that have a limited lifetime and constant replacement needs. The goal of this task is to convert the harvested energy available as AC or DC voltages needs to be converted to appropriate DC levels required for battery charging and management. This is accomplished by employing AC-DC or DC-DC power converters, guaranteeing more than very high energy/power efficiency.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Advanced Self Powered Systems of Sensors and Technologies (ASSIST) Center.

### New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials

Xiangwu Zhang, Alex Q. Huang, Peter S. Fedkiw, Saad A. Khan
09/16/09 - 11/15/13

The objective of the proposed work is to use electrospinning technology to integrate dissimilar materials (lithium alloy and carbon) into novel composite nanofiber anodes, which simultaneously have high energy density, reduced cost, and improved abuse tolerance. The nanofiber structure also allows the anodes to withstand repeated cycles of expansion and contraction. These composite nanofibers are electrospun into nonwoven fabrics with thickness of 50 m or more, and then directly used as anodes in a lithium-ion battery. This will eliminate the presence of non-active materials (e.g., conducting carbon black and polymer binder) and result in high energy and power densities. The nonwoven anode structure also provides a large electrode-electrolyte interface and, hence, high rate capacity and good low-temperature performance capability.

This project is sponsored by US Dept. of Energy (DOE).

### CIF:Small:From Fano to Shannon: Information Theory and Broadband Matching

Brian L. Hughes
09/01/10 - 08/31/14

In recent years, multi-element antenna arrays have assumed an increasingly central role in the design of wireless communication systems. Recent results on multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems have shown that deploying multi-element arrays at both the transmitter and receiver can dramatically improve the capacity of wireless channels in the presence of rich multipath. Since the capacity of MIMO systems increases with the number of transmit and receive elements, it is desirable to use as many elements as possible. However, since the physical size of the transmitter and receiver are often limited, increasing the number of elements often requires closer inter-element spacing and inevitably leads to correlation and mutual coupling. Coupling can profoundly impact the received power, available diversity and overall system capacity. Moreover, this impact depends not only on the kind of antennas used and the way they are arranged in space; it also depends in an essential way on key aspects of the wireless transceiver, such as the antenna matching network and the dominant sources of noise.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Collaborative Research: Direct-drive Modular Transverse Flux Electric Machine without Using Rare-Earth Permanent Magnet Material

Iqbal Husain, Srdjan Miodrag Lukic
09/01/13 - 08/31/16

The objective of the proposed research is to develop compact, high torque density, energy-efficient, rare-earth-material-free electric machines for alternative energy and transportation applications using the concept of transverse flux (TF) paths. The unconventional ?ring? winding producing the homopolar MMF distribution in the airgap used in TF machines allows the increase of pole numbers without the reduction of ampere-turn per pole. This effective increase in current loading makes these machines highly suitable for high-torque, low-speed direct-drive applications. Design innovations in both machine concept and control algorithms distinguish the proposed permanent magnet (PM)-TF structure from those previously developed. The proposed concept has the potential to dramatically increase the torque and power density of electric machines without using rare-earth magnet materials whose cost has increased dramatically over the past five years due to highly limited availability.

The goals of this research will be achieved through the following steps: (1) Analyse the electromagnetic, structural and thermal behaviour of the proposed concept; (2) establish analysis, design and control optimization principles for PM-TF machines; (3) design and develop motor controller; (4) fabricate 50kW (peak) prototype; (5) test and analyse performance on an electric powertrain dynamometer; and (6) disseminate results through research publications. A Researcher from National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has agreed to advise the team and provide technical assistance during the course of this research program. An automotive electric drive manufacturer, US Hybrid, has agreed to provide engineering guidance during the design stage and to help fabricate the prototype.

The research efforts will be supplemented by a comprehensive educational plan built around this proposal. Three lecture/laboratory modules on alternative energy and transportation each to cover five weeks of a 3 credit course will be developed at NC State and University of Akron, and also disseminated to other Universities. Several graduate and undergraduate students will be trained through this project.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Development of a Low Cost, Residential Plug and Play PV System

Alex Q. Huang, Subhashish Bhattacharya, Chih Tsai, David Lee Lubkeman, Thomas Cleveland, Stephen S. Kalland, Iqbal Husain
02/01/13 - 03/31/18

This project is a comprehensive, systemic effort to reduce the installed cost of Solar PV. The project will address all aspects of PV technology through analysis, design, refinement and invention while taking a broader systems perspective encompassing aspects of the supply chain, standards, and regulations. We will build standard component and system designs, and delivery systems that will require little or no custom engineering, can be installed and connected to the grid efficiently, and will meet refined and simplified building and electrical codes. The goal is to drive non-panel costs to below the $0.96 / Watt 2020 Sun Shot target for a total cost below$1.50 per Watt.

This project is sponsored by US Dept. of Energy (DOE).

### Scalable, Low-Cost, High-Performance Non-Rare Earth PM Motor for Hybrid Vehicles

Iqbal Husain
04/20/12 - 01/15/16

The project will evaluate and design a non-rare earth electric machine concept for electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The machine will use a standard traction inverter commonly used in traction applications. The design is based on an alternative configuration of swicthed reluctance machines that can use the standard inverter topology. A prototype machine will be designed and built based on DOE specifications, and tested on an electric dynamometer for validation of results.

This project is sponsored by GE Global Research.

### Switched Reluctance Machine and Controller Development for Electric Power Steering

Iqbal Husain
09/01/11 - 12/31/14

The objective of the project is to experimentally evaluate the three-phase switched reluctance machine (SRM) drive that has been developed and built for electric power steering (EPS) and then design the next generation machine.

This project is sponsored by Nexteer Automotive.

### Vehicle Energy Storage & Solar Demonstration

Ewan Gareth David Pritchard, Iqbal Husain, Srdjan Miodrag Lukic, Kevin N Martin
07/27/12 - 04/30/14

This project will design, build, and operate a solar powered electric vehicle charging station that incorporates stationary energy storage. The system will be installed in the parking garage and connected to the microgrid in the Advanced Transportation Energy Center (ATEC) lab and will provide a valuable tool for enhancing the ongoing energy research, education and EV deployment activities of the center. A large LED display mounted to the parking deck structure will monitor the energy generation and flow in real time and will be provide a simple visual display for visitors to the center. The Vehicle Energy Storage & Solar Demonstration (VESSD) project will integrate several advanced energy technologies and serve as a test bed for intelligent integration of renewable generation within microgrids.

This project is sponsored by American Public Power Association.

### NSA / North Carolina State University Science of Security Lablet: Analytics Supporting Security Science

Dennis H. Kekas, Peng Ning, Mladen A. Vouk, Rudra Dutta, Laurie A. Williams, Mihail L. Sichitiu, Michael A. Rappa, John C. Bass
04/03/08 - 11/30/14

North Carolina State University (NCSU), led by the Department of Computer Science and the Institute of Advanced Analytics in conjunction with the Institute for Next Generation IT Systems (ITng), will create and manage a Science of Security Lablet (SOSL) research organization on behalf of the National Security Agency (NSA). The SOSL research organization will conduct and coordinate basic science research projects focused on the Science of Security. SOSL will coordinate with related Lablet activities sponsored by NSA at Carnegie Mellon University and at University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign (UIUC). SOSL will also coordinate with the Security Science Virtual Organization at Vanderbilt University. The coordination will be in the form of workshops and technical exchanges.

This project is sponsored by US Army - Army Research Office.

### Center of Function Accelerated nanoMaterial Engineering (FAME)

Ki Wook Kim
01/15/13 - 10/31/17

As a part of the UCLA led team, we will investigate two emerging physical systems/mechanisms capable of highly functional information processing beyond the current state of the art. The first task explores electronic properties of van der Waals materials and their heterostructures. Of primary interest is a system utilizing atomically thin tunnel structures and engineered density-of-states mismatch for ultra-high-speed operation in the terahertz frequencies and strong nonlinearity. The second exploits the possibility of inducing and controlling strongly correlated interactions between electronic and magnetic systems. Specifically, a layered structure consisting of non-metallic magnetic materials and low-dimensional semiconductors with large surface area, such as the van der Waals crystals, is the focus of investigation. The key concept utilizes the correlation between two materials through interactions at the interface, enabling modulation of one property through the other. Detailed theoretical analyses coupled with numerical modeling will be conducted to demonstrate the underlying physical concepts. Relevant metrics will be estimated to gauge the performance in realistic applications.

This project is sponsored by University of California - Los Angeles.

### Modeling of Thermoelectrics

Ki Wook Kim
09/01/12 - 08/31/14

During the coming year, we propose to continue with two complimentary objectives, one long-term and the other more near-term, in the pursuit of high efficiency thermoelectric (TE) materials and devices. In the long term, the effort will be focused on achieving comprehensive understanding of fundamental electrical and thermal transport properties of lead chalcogenide and bismuth chalcogenide heterostructures through application of a multiscale modeling approach. Along with the effort on the active element of the system (i.e., TE materials and structures), our theoretical investigation will also be extended to the interfaces between the device and substrate (body) as well as at the other end of the TE unit (heat sink; ambient). One issue that will be studied as a part of our near-term objectives is the choice of metallic material to reduce the thermal contact resistance.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Advanced Self Powered Systems of Sensors and Technologies (ASSIST) Center.

### South West Academy of Nanoelectronics (SWAN) 2.0: Charge/Spin Transport and Thermal Management in 2D Crystal Nanostructure Devices

Ki Wook Kim
04/01/13 - 12/31/17

As a member of SWAN (South West Academy of Nanoelectronics) 2.0 led by the Univ. of Texas at Austin, we propose to pursue two tasks in the development of next-generation low-power devices based on emerging 2D material systems including the topological insulators. In the first task, we will theoretically analyze carrier-phonon interaction dynamics and transport of excess heat/phonons in 2D materials and devices. In particular, a first-principles formalism based on density functional theory will be used to establish the intrinsic electron-phonon scattering rates in such candidate materials as transition metal dichalcogenides, silicene, germanene, and bismuth selenide, elucidating the extent of energy exchange in the surface states. At the same time, heat transfer across the layered 2D crystal heterostructures will be examined by using an atomistic thermal/phonon transport model. The second task will entail design and modeling of low-power high-functional logic devices that utilize the spin-momentum interlocked nature of carrier transport in the TI surface states. Particularly, the magnetoelectric effects caused by the neighboring magnetic layers will be the focus of investigation as the key device-enable feature in the topological insulator/magnet structures. Specific device concepts under consideration include magnetoelectric FETs and quasi-optic switches.

This project is sponsored by University of Texas - Austin.

### Topological Insulator Hybrid Structures for Novel Optoelectronic Applications

Ki Wook Kim, Jagdish Narayan
08/15/13 - 07/31/16

The objective of this program is to exploit unique advantages of topological insulator based structures for optoelectronic applications. Specifically, the strong magnetoelectric interaction at the topological insulator-magnetic material interface and subsequent band engineering is the key focus as they can facilitate tailored response to an optical signal, offering an ideal environment for previously unattainable performances such as extreme sensitivity detection. The combined theoretical and experimental effort aims to achieve synthesis, fabrication, and analysis of novel topological insulator materials and layered heterostructures as well as demonstration of superior device functionalities.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Topological Insulators for Novel Device Applications

Ki Wook Kim
08/05/13 - 08/04/16

This research program proposes to theoretically exploit the unique characteristics of topological insulator based structures for highly functional devices at room temperature. Utilizing the spin-momentum interlocked nature originating from strong spin-orbit coupling, the key focus is to achieve electrical control of both degrees of freedom that would provide an ideal environment to integrate electronics and magnetics into one nanoscale system. A number of innovative new concepts are put forth by judiciously employing hybrid structures formed with magnetic materials. Specific applications are pursued in three different areas ? multifunctional charge/spin current modulation, nonvolatile magnetic switching, and high sensitivity THz/far infrared detection. The investigation will encompass both the fundamental properties of topological insulators and the device modeling. In particular, first principles calculations will be employed for detailed understanding of the surface states and their interactions with the intrinsic and extrinsic sources. The basic operating principles of the envisioned devices will be analyzed with the development of physical models. Numerical modeling will follow to establish concrete designs as well as realistic estimates of performance specifications. If completed successfully, the proposed research can have significant potential impacts on room-temperature multi-functional spintronics, integration of magnetism with nanoelectronics, far infrared sensing technologies, etc.

This project is sponsored by US Army - Army Research Office.

### CIF:Small:Complex Networks: A Unifying Topological View

Hamid Krim
08/01/12 - 07/31/14

To address the challenges of emerging problems in complex networks (e.g. hub discovery, time varying topology, information ow and ow management), we propose a more e ffective, efficient and potentially comprehensive approach by invoking the intrinsic topology of the

network/data. The essence of this approach is that the intrinsic structure of the underlying data, along with all its implied information, will contribute to constructing an analysis framework where topological invariants are sought to serve as a basis for (albeit coarsely) parsing and distilling data.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### DO 2 Task 3.5 - Krim

Hamid Krim
09/13/13 - 09/30/14

DO 2 task 3.5 activities

This project is sponsored by Laboratory for Analytic Sciences.

### DO 2 Task 3.6 - Krim

Hamid Krim
09/13/13 - 09/30/14

DO 2 Task 3.6 activities

This project is sponsored by Laboratory for Analytic Sciences.

### Interdisciplinary Distinguished Seminar Series

Hamid Krim, Henry J. Trussell
07/01/10 - 06/30/14

Fundamental problems in science and engineering have become increas-

ingly interdisciplinary, requiring knowledge and expert input from several

areas of research. This is both challenging and exciting. The primary chal-

lenge faced by researchers is to keep abreast of new developments in tangen-

tial research areas to their own, not to mention those which are considered

dierent. The increasing complexity of newly arising problems has on the

other hand, invariably required a multifaceted approach to viewing and un-

derstanding them, and ultimately produce a solution.

To that end, the PIs propose to host a regularly scheduled seminar series with preeminent and leading reseachers in the US and the world, to help promote North Carolina as a center of innovation and knowledge and to ensure safeguarding its place of leading research.

This project is sponsored by US Army - Army Research Office.

### Minimax Compressed Sensing Reconstruction

Hamid Krim, Dror Zeev Baron
10/02/12 - 01/01/15

Compressed sensing is an emerging area where signal acquisition and reconstruction is possible for sparse and structured signals from a reduced number of measurements. The majority of compressed sensing research has focused on algorithms that are optimized to minimize the energy in the reconstruction error. We will instead focus on algorithms that can target a reconstruction that is optimized for any reconstruction metric, and in particular a minimax approach that minimizes the largest component-wise error.

This project is sponsored by US Army - Army Research Office.

### MUlti-MOdality Image REconstruction (MUMOIRE)

Hamid Krim
03/17/11 - 06/30/14

The Missile Defense Agency is pursuing collaborative applied technology development activities with selected organizations in the Czech Republic. The projects are unclassified. They are designed to demonstrate and enhance relationships by developing technologies that are of interest to MDA. The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) funded phase 1 of a project that was conducted in partnership with the Czech Technical University (CTU) in Prague. The U.S. University was our prime contractor. A substantial portion of the effort was conducted by CTU since we were interested in their unique image reconstruction techniques. In very broad terms, our interest in MDA is in combining the images from several sensors with angular diversity into a coherent picture. While we will eventually apply the algorithms that do this to the missile defense problem (discrimination, pattern matching, etc), we are developing an approach based on the more basic techniques that the Czechs have developed in relation to more simple problems. This SOW is for a follow-on effort that would take advantage of progress made in the first year and include the continuation of basic algorithm research and process development for stereoscopic image analysis. The prime contractor is a U.S. educational institute, whose goals and purpose are more aligned to the CTU. The task will incorporate multimodal EO/IR and SAR (if available) sensor data to enhance 3D reconstruction with a focused effort on reconstructing partially obscured images using a target?s or sensor?s motion.

This project is sponsored by US Missile Defense Agency.

### Practice Meets Theory: A Case For an Experimental Actionable Sensor Network Test-Bed

Hamid Krim, Edgar J Lobaton
08/15/12 - 10/31/13

Information scavenging, cross-validation and fusion are a few examples which highlight the challenges of newly emerging and complex problems in military applications often invoking data of staggering size. Towards a more effective and efficient exploitation of such massive amounts of data, we propose an innovative and more informed data reduction process. The essence and novelty of this proposed effort is in accounting for the topology of the underlying data and the information it carries, and in building a novel powerful nonlinear analysis framework. Given these massive data sets, our research objective is to: (1) aggregate and fuse the information coming from different sources and modalities, and (2) plan for the motion of agents who are actionable.

To experimentally evaluate our proposed algorithmic techniques, and meet the challenge of expediting a potential transition of our research results, we seek to develop a test-bed platform equipped with various sensors commonly encountered in applications in the theater. This platform will combine local sensing from a ground robotic swarm with global information coming from Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) and other robotic platforms. In addition to enhancing our ability of running real experiments, this test-bed will play a key role in refining our algorithms, and in helping provide other DOD-sponsored researchers access to realistic data for their testing.

The test-bed will be used as a strong promotional tool for undergraduate students who will be put in charge of assembling the system as part of their Senior Design projects. Components of this test-bed will also be used as a demonstration tool in national conferences to attract students from diverse backgrounds to science and engineering.

This project is sponsored by US Army - Army Research Office.

### Robust Biosignals Analysis with Low Computational Complexity

Hamid Krim
09/01/12 - 08/31/14

Wheezes are continuous adventitious lung sounds extensively used as an indicator of airway obstruction. The most important characteristic of wheeze signals, which is the key component of this study, is their harmonic behavior. We have studied the wheeze detection problem using wavelet and time-frequency techniques. Moreover, a new approach for periodicity detection is applied to wheeze signals for faster and more accurate detection. During second year of our work, we are trying to build on our latest efficient wheeze detection algorithm based on delay embeddings of breathing signals. We exploit density based subsampling to improve the performance and reduce the number of representative data points. Computational geometry approaches are utilized for the analysis of the point cloud of the delay embeddings to reduce the computational complexity of the algorithm. We also describe the global topological structure of the point cloud that makes our approach robust to missing data. Furthermore, we propose to determine the monophonic/polyphonic nature of the wheeze signal. We plan to build on the current low-complexity solution to extract the presence of one or more spectral harmonics using an on-node process. It is essential to account for all sources of noise. The robustness of all of our algorithms relies on our ability to account for disturbances, estimate them and minimize their effect.

ECG signals are also very widely used in the clinical trade for diagnosing and monitoring many cardiac diseases and for evaluating major health risks. Heart beat rate classification and prediction play an essential role in the diagnosis of different types of arrythmias. Tachycardia and bradycardia can be detected when the heart beat rate is higher or lower than normal. In addition, the displacement of the baseline from the isoelectric line is an important factor in an ECG evaluation. Elevation and depression of the baseline are signs of heart tissue diseases such as cardiac ischaemia and myocardial infarction, respectively. We will use a novel phase space technique to characterize and quantify changes in ECG signals due to the various conditions of the heart. Due to the quasi-periodic nature of ECG signals, the topological structure of their delay embeddings can discover the nonlinear features of heart activity dynamics. Since abnormalities are hidden inside the measured ECG signal, one advantage of this approach is analysis of changes instead of detecting specific characteristics of the signal as developed in the existing methods. The analysis of a measured ECG signal is challenging on account of its heavy corruption by a variety of interferences such as background noise, motion artifact and baseline drift. We will analyze the signals with the goal of possibly modeling such effect, and its eventual adaptive elimination.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Advanced Self Powered Systems of Sensors and Technologies (ASSIST) Center.

### Modular Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer for Research on Remote Sensing and Improved Situational Awareness

Michael Kudenov, Michael James Escuti, John F. Muth, Pamela Gilchrist
09/01/13 - 08/31/14

A modular Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer is requested by Dr. Michael Kudenov at North Carolina State University's (NCSU?s) Optical Sensing Lab (OSL). The proposed equipment will enable the radiometrically calibrated characterization of optical systems and components for wavelengths spanning 0.7-28 m. This equipment will enhance NCSU?s DoD research capabilities, for both current, pending, and future projects, in the field of electronic sensing, by enabling the spectral and polarimetric properties of infrared materials, diffractive structures, detectors, objective lenses, thin films, detectors, and surfaces to be characterized. Additionally, it will benefit NCSU?s current research-related education and outreach activities. This effect is two-fold: (1) it will allow undergraduate and graduate student researchers to formulate solutions to problems using infrared optical principles; and (2) it will enable local high school and middle school teachers and students first-hand experience in the role that infrared spectral sensing has in science, engineering, and defense, and how it can be used to solve real-world problems, through NCSU's Science House program.

This project is sponsored by US Navy-Office Of Naval Research.

### Snapshot Imaging Spatial Heterodyne Interferometer (Phase II)

Michael Kudenov
09/18/13 - 05/21/15

Clutter reduction in infrared imagery is critical to identifying targets from background radiation. As applied towards detection of remote objects, a failed detection could yield loss of life. Alternatively, false detections produce wasted time and resources, and may make users complacent. Dual spectral band imaging has been applied to this problem; however, it still yields a high false alarm rate (FAR). In order to reduce the FAR, hyperspectral imaging may prove useful. To this end, the proposed work is aimed at developing a sensor to perform wide field-of-view imaging at a high spectral resolution, thus identifying important targets from background clutter with a reduced FAR.

This project is sponsored by SA Photonics.

### Stretchable, Tunable, Self-Healing Micro-Fluidic Antennas

Michael D. Dickey, Gianluca Lazzi
09/01/09 - 08/31/13

We propose a new paradigm in antenna design and development that can lead to very low-loss radiating/receiving devices that are mechanically stretchable, flexible, and "self-healing". These properties offer a wide spectrum of possibilities in reconfigurable antennas for wireless and tactical sensor applications, with spectral response and geometry that can be modulated by strain, motion, pressure, and electric potential.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Biomechanical Evaluation of Strong Arm Vest

Chang S Nam, Edgar J Lobaton, Jeffrey Hoyle
01/01/14 - 05/15/14

The purpose is to understand the biomechanical and physiological differences in lifting with and without the use of the Strong Arm Vest.

The independent variables in this study will be VEST CONDITION, LOAD WEIGHT, and LIFT FREQUENCY. The dependent measures in this study will include both objective and subjective measures. The dependent measures in this study will include both objective and subjective measures. Four types of objective measures will be included in this study. In addition to the objective measures, a questionnaire with be administered to collect subjective measures of discomfort, fatigue, usability, and general comments/feedback.

This project is sponsored by Strong Arm Technologies, Inc..

### CPS: Synergy: Provably Safe Automotive Cyber-Physical Systems with Humans-in-the-Loop

Edgar J Lobaton
10/01/12 - 09/30/15

The automotive sector is one of the richest targets for emerging innovations in Cyber Physical Systems (CPS). Increased content electronics, non-contact sensors, controls and communication with the environment and the driver will change the way we drive and interact with our cars in the near future. However, despite the enormous number of fatalities and injuries on US and world roads, there is an enormous gap between research achievements in autonomous drive and the active safety systems currently available in production vehicles. We propose a paradigm shift which looks at whole cyber physical vehicle/environment/driver and thus address all its three main

critical components: (A) the vehicle/environment interaction, (B) the driver uncertainty and (C) the provably-safe intervention under the predicted uncertainty of A and B. We will develop a novel science for of Cyber-Physical Systems with the goal of obtaining a provably safe human-centric autonomy where certification is evidence-based and

evolves with the system (as new driver behaviors, scenes, slipping dynamics enter in the database of the CPS we construct in real-time). Robustness is measured against bounded state-dependent uncertainty of a driver/vehicle interaction model and of the scene reconstruction.

This project is sponsored by University of California - Berkeley.

### Probabilistic Available Transfer Capability Calculation Tool Phase III Developing a Graphical User Interface

Ning Lu
01/01/14 - 09/30/14

In Phase III of the project, we will develop a graphical user interface (GUI) in Matlab for the Probabilistic Available Transfer Capability Calculation Tool developed in Phase I and II. Necessary code modification will be done for the GUI to access codes developed in Phase I and II

The graphic interface will allow the users to

•Select input wind, load, generation data, TTC, TRM, and CBM & Firm Reservations data.

•Visualize the statistic characteristics of input time series data

•Define parameters of the Monte Carlo simulations to produce different scenarios

•Save results in the report format: projected/expected TTC and ATC

This project is sponsored by Idaho Power Company.

### CPS: Synergy: Collaborative Research: Diagnostics and Prognostics Using Temporal Causal Models for Cyber Physical Systems- A Case of Smart Electric Grid

Srdjan Miodrag Lukic
10/01/13 - 09/30/16

Resilience to failures is an important requirement for cyber-physical systems such as Smart Grids that are an integral part of our infrastructure. They consist of tightly conjoined networks of physical components (including generation, transmission, and distribution facilities) interfaced with cyber components (including sensors, communication lines, computational software). Efficient models and online tools for understanding failure propagation and fault source isolation are necessary for building systems that are resilient to failures. Dynamic conditions resulting from varying physical system state such as power consumption, changing operational requirements, physical component degradation, software failures pose great challenges in achieving the desired reliability. We propose to develop (a) new methodology to build fault models for complex cyber-physical systems such as smart grid, (b) develop an integrated system-wide solution for isolating faults and identifying future failure propagation that takes into account the existing protection mechanisms designed into the system. This work will be performed in the context of transmission and active distribution systems of smart grid. However, we believe that this work can be extended to other cyber physical systems as well.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Evaluation of nanodevices for ASSIST Applications

Leda Lunardi
09/01/12 - 11/30/13

In year 1, the effort will be based on evaluation of tunnel vertical field effect transistors (TFETs). In this effort, a survey will be performed of the various analog building blocks replacing MOSFETs with TFETs which will allow reduction of supply voltage in analog blocks to 0.5V. Specifically, efforts will simulate and measure TFET DC and RF performance. Analog reference designs that lowers the supply voltage of operation will be explored.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Advanced Self Powered Systems of Sensors and Technologies (ASSIST) Center.

### Promoting Academic and Career Success for Raleigh Future Scholars at NC State

Leda Lunardi, Montserrat Fuentes, Cheryl Parzel Cass, Tony L. Mitchell
09/01/13 - 08/31/17

We seek 76 scholarships over four years to establish a successful program in engineering disciplines for low income undergraduate students at NC State University. This project also includes students majoring in statistics. We will create a pathway through Raleigh Promise for the academically talented and economically disadvantageous student population with a Raleigh permanent address, increasing their opportunities for STEM careers. We have identified several activities in which scholars will have participation priority, including mentoring, career readiness, and educational incentives that have proven to be very successful in academic success. We are proposing to make all need-based scholarship awards the same annual amount of $5500. At the end of this project, we will have effectively increased the rate at which 76 STEM scholars have earned their degree, and built a more diverse and inclusive student population that interacts with and helps recruit new students entering NC State. This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF). ### REU Site: Engineering the Grid Leda Lunardi, Lisa L. Grable 07/15/10 - 12/31/14 The main purpose is to provide financial assistance for undergraduate students to participate and present technical papers at the 2014 IEEE Southeast Conference to be held in Lexington,KY. This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF). ### GaN Power Device Design and Fabrication Veena Misra, Alex Q. Huang, B. Jayant Baliga, Douglas C Hopkins, Mark A. Johnson 09/01/09 - 08/31/14 The objective of this project is to fabricate and demonstrate normally-off lateral Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) GaN/AlGaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) power devices and diodes for the second generation of the solid state transformer (SST) having 600V of blocking voltage characteristics and 30-Ampere current capability with a specific on resistance of 1-2 mohm-cm2. This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM). ### High Quality Interfaces and Bulk Dielectrics for GaN based RF and Power Devices Veena Misra 08/22/11 - 09/30/14 In this proposal, we will explore novel dielectrics and ultra scaled channel lengths to achieve ultra high performance GaN devices. We will also characterize and model reliability of these devices. This project is sponsored by US Navy-Office Of Naval Research. ### Investigation of Engineered High-K Dielectric Stacks on SiC Channels Veena Misra 07/28/11 - 03/01/14 This work will seek to fabricate and optimize engineered gatestacks in SiC MOSFET devices. The tradeoff between mobility and threshold voltage will be explored. In addition, further interface treatments and device pulse testing will be carried out. This project is sponsored by Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc.. ### Nanoscale Electronic and Energy Materials (NEEM) GAANN Program Gregory N. Parsons, David E. Aspnes, Duane K. Larick, David A. Shultz, Veena Misra, Jon-Paul Maria 08/16/10 - 08/15/14 Through interdisciplinary doctoral education in Nanoscale Electronic and Energy Materials (NEEM), North Carolina State University (NC State) proposes to increase its commitment to interdisciplinary graduate training in electronic and energy materials related to nanotechnology. This interdisciplinary field comprises several areas designated by the GAANN Program as critical to national need: Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Chemistry, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering, and Physics. Our goal is to enlarge the pool of U.S. citizens and permanent residents who will pursue teaching and research careers in nanoscale electronic and energy materials, thereby developing the academic and research infrastructure necessary for increasing U.S. competitiveness in this area and the basic science upon which its future success depends. Through outstanding faculty and facilities, as well as long-standing cooperative arrangements with other universities, government, and industry, NC State is uniquely situated to provide excellent graduate education in nanoscale electronic and energy materials. This project is sponsored by US Dept. of Education (DED). ### Nanoscale Electronic and Energy Materials (NEEM) GAANN Program Gregory N. Parsons, David E. Aspnes, Duane K. Larick, David A. Shultz, Jon-Paul Maria, Veena Misra 08/16/12 - 08/15/15 Through interdisciplinary doctoral education in Nanoscale Electronic and Energy Materials (NEEM), North Carolina State University (NC State) proposes to increase its commitment to interdisciplinary graduate training in electronic and energy materials related to nanotechnology. This interdisciplinary field comprises several areas designated by the GAANN Program as critical to national need: Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Chemistry, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering, and Physics. Our goal is to enlarge the pool of U.S. citizens and permanent residents who pursue teaching and research careers in nanoscale electronic and energy materials, thereby developing the academic and research infrastructure and increase U.S. competitiveness. This project is sponsored by US Dept. of Education (DED). ### Nanostructured Materials for Renewable Alternative Energy Gregory N. Parsons, Orlin D. Velev, Veena Misra, Christopher B. Gorman, Michael D. Dickey 07/25/08 - 07/24/13 The goal of this project is to advance fundamental understanding of novel inorganic nanostructures integrated with photoelectronic organic materials, to expand the field of nanomaterials for renewable energy devices and systems. This project is sponsored by US Dept. of Energy (DOE). ### Growth, Characterization and Doping processing for MgZnO by MOCVD using real-time Spectroscopic Elipsometry John E. Rowe, David E. Aspnes, John F. Muth 09/23/13 - 05/07/14 We propose to grow MgZnO epitaxial films using real-time diagnostics which are an essential tool in the development and improvement of growth processes for new materials. At NC State we will use real-time spectroscopic polarimetric observations of magnesium zinc oxide film deposition. We will also develop a physics-based chemical reaction model derived there from our growth measurements. Using this we will develop a method of growing dense, two-dimensional magnesium zinc oxide epitaxially on sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition with both n-type doping and p-type doping. Additional characterization by Hall, XPS, SIMS, XRD and Raman will be performed. This project is sponsored by Agnitron Technology, Inc.. ### Phase II: Thin Robust Electrical Insulator for High Field HTS Magnets Justin Schwartz, John F. Muth 08/15/11 - 06/30/14 This Small Business Technology Transfer Phase II project is proposed to address high temperature superconductor (HTS) insulation to help improve quench protection without any increase in volume manufacturing cost. The project proposes to increase magnet stability and at least double the quench propagation velocity (QPV) in HTS magnets via nanoengineered, thermally conductive, turn-to-turn insulation. In Phase II we will further enhance the insulation layer and also increase thermal conductivity of the epoxy so that the QPV will be further increased to six times that achieved with currently used insulators but at similar or lower costs. This is a critical achievement for HTS magnets in general, and in particular for those generating magnetic fields >25 T. This project is sponsored by nGimat Co.. ### Purelux Novel Light Emitters II John F. Muth 05/01/13 - 08/31/14 This proposal focuses on the development of novel light emitters. This project is sponsored by PureLux, Inc.. ### SBIR Phase II: Tethered Membranes For IR Sensor John F. Muth 12/21/12 - 12/20/14 This project implements a MEMs sensor that may be used for infrared sensors that can be used for military or industrial applications. This project is sponsored by New Jersey Microsystems, Inc. ### STTR Phase IIB: NSF Multiwavelength Light Emitter John F. Muth, Leda Lunardi, Robert M. Kolbas 01/15/09 - 12/31/13 This project continues development of a multiwavelength light emitter to be incorporated into health monitoring applications designed by Valencell Inc. This project is sponsored by Valencell Inc.. ### NCSU-UNC Joint PSM in Advanced Medical Technologies (JPSM-AMT) Andrew J DiMeo, H. T. Nagle 04/01/12 - 11/30/13 The State of NC has been promoting Advanced Medical Technologies over the last several years. Economic development groups in the RTP and Wake County have held numerous stakeholder events that were well attended by local medtech companies. NCBC has established an advanced medical technologies center of innovation, named ibiliti. Oure new JPSM-AMT will train local professionals to transition from other industries into the emerging medtech sector, provide an entrepreneurial & multidisciplinary environment that has the potential to generate new IP and possible university spinouts, and will utilize experintial learning techniques, coaching, and professional mentorship. This project is sponsored by NCSU Professional Science Master. ### STEM Student Travel Grants for Bioelectronics Training H. T. Nagle 06/01/13 - 05/31/14 Currently registered students at US academic institutions may apply for a$500 travel grant to participate in a Bioelectronics training program to be held in conjunction with IEEE SENSORS 2013 in Baltimore on November 3. Awardees must be US citizens or Green Card holders. A special track in the conference's traditional tutorials program is being organized for these students. Up to 40 travel awards will be made, with priority being given to students from NSF ERCs and those presenting research papers or posters at the conference. Travel to Baltimore, hotel expenses, and conference registration will typically exceed $1,500. These travel awards will thus supplement a student's locally available funding and encourage greater total student participation in this important conference. This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF). ### An Ultrasound-Based Noninvasive Neural Interface to the Retina Omer Oralkan 08/01/13 - 07/31/16 We propose to develop a conformal miniaturized high-frequency ultrasound transducer array integrated with supporting electronics, to be formed in the shape of a contact lens. This proposal is based on our recent preliminary experimental results showing that the retina responds to focused ultrasound in a similar way to its natural stimulus, light. The proposed device will be designed to project desired ultrasound patterns for direct stimulation of neural circuits in the retina. Such a device has many potential applications including possible enhancement of vision, overlaying patterns on the visual input, or as a prosthetic device to restore vision in blind patients with regenerative retinal disease. This project is sponsored by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). ### Mechanically Resonant Chemical Sensor Arrays Based on Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers Omer Oralkan 09/01/13 - 08/31/14 The main objective of this project is to develop a highly sensitive, low-power gas sensing system based on a mechanically resonant mass-loading sensor coated with selective functionalization layers. The mechanical resonator is a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT). Previous generations of CMUT-based gas sensors were designed to push the limit of detection. In the proposed work the power consumption is to be minimized. The target detection limit for different analytes, e.g. ozone and volatile organic compounds, will be set in the 1% to 10% volume concentration of the permissible exposure limits. There are three main tracks in this project: 1) Design of nano-engineered polymer-based functionalization layers. 2) Design of optimized mechanical resonators. 3) Design of low-power, low-phase noise electrical oscillators. This project is sponsored by NCSU Advanced Self Powered Systems of Sensors and Technologies (ASSIST) Center. ### Percutaneous cardiac HIFU Ablation with Multimodal Image Guidance Omer Oralkan 09/01/13 - 06/30/18 This project aims to develop a combined high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and photoacoustic/ultrasound imaging system that will significantly improve the treatment of relatively common forms of heart disease, atrial fibrillation in particular, a form of arrhythmia affecting 0.4% to 1% of the general population and increasing with age. The described devices and systems will be developed based on the capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer technology, which employs silicon device fabrication techniques to implement ultrasonic transducers and supporting integrated front-end circuits. This project is sponsored by Stanford University. ### Bridging Mathematics Contents to Engineering Contexts; Just-In-Time Assessment and Review Modules Hatice O. Ozturk, Alina Nicoleta Duca 09/01/13 - 08/31/15 This project is designed around the new learning-based engineering education paradigm where the students work hard at learning while the mentor listens and guides. ?The guiding? is done on a technology platform according to the needs of the students which are assessed with questions at various levels of difficulty. The instructional design of this technology platform is done by a strong collaboration of mathematicians and engineering educators supported by the instructional software experts. The main goal of the project is to bridge the gap between math education of engineering students and their ability to apply this knowledge and skills in their engineering courses in a way that uniquely meets the needs of the students. Prerequisite math knowledge and skills are introduced as they are needed and in contexts that they will be used with the help of custom created Just-in-Time Assessment and Review modules. Preliminary results show that the proposed approach effectively increases the math preparedness of engineering students and results in improved achievement of course instructional objectives. This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF). ### High Performance Thermoelectrics Mehmet C. Ozturk 09/01/12 - 08/31/14 This project aims at developing flexible thermoelectrics devices to harvest energy from the human body. Two approaches are being considered. In the first approach, a flexible package is developed to integrate thermoelectric legs grown by an epitaxial growth technique. In the second approach, polycrystalline thermoelectric materials are grown selectively in a flexible package. The ultimate goal is to integrate these devices on a flexible platform such as a wristband. This project is sponsored by NCSU Advanced Self Powered Systems of Sensors and Technologies (ASSIST) Center. ### MRI: Acquisition of an Electron Beam Lithography System for the NCSU Nanofabrication Facility Mehmet C. Ozturk, Veena Misra, Michael D. Dickey, Robert Riehn, Steven Allan Soper 09/01/12 - 08/31/15 Funds are requested to acquire an electron beam lithography system. The instrument will be located in the NCSU Nanofabrication Facility and it will be available to the facility's user base on a first come first served basis. The proposed instrument will be able to write patterns with a resolution of 10 nm or better, it will be able to accept wafer sizes up to 6 inches and it will be able to function as a scanning electron microscope. This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF). ### GOALI: Thermal Transport in AlGaN Alloys: Effect of Point and Structural Defects Tania M Paskova, John F. Muth 08/15/13 - 07/31/16 The objective of this proposal is to perform a basic study of thermal conductivity of AlGaN alloys in the entire composition range with variable defect density achieved by using growth on different substrates and to explore the role of point and structural defects on the thermal transport in these materials. This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF). ### III-Nitride LED Structures on Sidewall Grown Semipolar Facets Tania M Paskova, John F. Muth 07/01/12 - 06/30/15 This is an International Collaboration Supplement (ICS) request in conjunction with our NSF project # 1207075 titled "III-Nitride LED structures on sidewall grown semipolar facets", aiming to bring an additional strong scientific component that could leverage the success of the current program. The supplement will also enhance a productive on-going international collaboration with a spectroscopy group from the Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF). ### Workshop: 8th IW on Bulk Nitride Semiconductors: Growth Properties and Devices, to be held in Bavaria, Germany, Sept.30-Oct.5, 2013 Tania M Paskova 10/01/13 - 03/31/15 The proposed project seeks financial support to US women and young researchers to attend the 8th International Workshop on Bulk Nitride Semiconductors to be held in Bavaria, Germany, Sept.30 - Oct.5, 2013. This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF). ### CAREER: Spin-Torque Oscillator Arrays David Ricketts 12/23/12 - 12/31/15 This research investigates magnetostatic spin-wave generation, propagation, interaction and absorption in multi-layer Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) and Tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) spin-torque oscillator (STO) arrays. With the recent demonstration of spin-torque transfer and self-sustained oscillators, a new class of oscillator has emerged with extreme tunability and potential for excellent RF performance. Recent results have shown, however, that the potential of these new devices is limited by the large phase noise of individual devices due to the small amount of energy stored in a single device. A potential solution is the phase-locking of many STOs in a large array. This research focuses on the fundamental science of STO-STO interaction in multi-device arrays with the goal of laying the foundation for controllable, scalable arrays of STO oscillators. Specifically, this research proposal focuses on three tasks investigating fundamental science of spin-wave STO interaction: 1) Study of magnetostatic surface wave dynamics on multi-layer STO stacks, 2) Study of magnetostatic surface wave stimulated emission by an STO, and 3) Spatial dependence and scaling of STO-STO interactions. This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF). ### Enabling Nanomanufacturing for Rapid Innovation Workshop David Ricketts 06/15/13 - 11/30/13 This workshop brings together industry, government and academic leaders in manufacturing and nanotechnology for a two day interactive discussion on prototyping of emerging devices enabled by precisely integrating nano-scale structures and materials. The goal of this workshop is to explore ways to take the techniques and methods developed in the lab and translate them into nanomanufacturing systems on a scale and cost that allows them to be widely adopted by organizations, large and small. This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF). ### Investigation of Optimum Conversion in the Ultimate Limit of Timing Uncertainty and Clock Degradation David Ricketts 02/18/13 - 04/30/14 This research investigates the limitations of state-of-the-art analog to digital converters in the presence of jitter and clock distortion. This project is sponsored by US Navy-Office Of Naval Research. ### Multi-watt, Efficient, All-Silicon Power Amplifiers: MESPA David Ricketts 09/02/13 - 03/01/15 This research investigates the design and realization of multi-watt power amplifiers mm-wave communication systems. This project is sponsored by US Army. ### Near Frictionless Surface Acoustic Wave Active Bearing for Disk Drive and Other Applications David Ricketts 12/15/12 - 08/31/14 This research investigates a novel mechanical interface which utilizes surface acoustic waves (SAW) for lubrication. In this concept, SAW?s are used to realize a direct contact interface with zero effective friction between two surfaces sliding at high relative velocities. If a traveling SAW is excited on one of the two surfaces moving relative to one another, and the contact points, which are the peaks of the traveling SAW, have the same horizontal velocity as the relative velocity between the two surfaces, the contact points will not experience any friction. The creation of zero-sliding-velocity contact points minimizes effective friction without applying any lubricants and, as a result, enables a host of new applications. This is the converse effect to ultrasonic motors, which use SAW?s to create friction forces between two surfaces. This concept in essence is an active mechanical bearing. This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF). ### Far-Ahead Address Prediction and its Microarchitecture Applications Eric Rotenberg 09/03/09 - 12/31/13 Sequential programs spend most of their time iterating over elements of objects. Iteration is launched by a base instruction that produces an initial address, which in turn depends on elaborate computation. A novel technique is proposed whereby distant correlated ancestors predict the initial address. This is exploited for a number of microarchitecture applications that parallelize or accelerate the computation derived from iterating over objects. This project is sponsored by Intel Corporation. ### SHF: Small: Design for Competitive Automated Layout (DCAL) of Mobile Application Processor Eric Rotenberg 08/01/12 - 07/31/15 For two decades, personal computers and servers have been powered by increasingly sophisticated superscalar processors. The last few years has even witnessed the introduction of superscalar processors into smart phones and tablet PCs, in order to provide richer user experiences. There are important trends in both domains: server-class processors require unsustainable design effort, as evidenced by a select few, highly trained, large design teams in industry proliferating superscalar processors; mobile devices are evolving at an extraordinary pace. These trends suggest it is time to take a radical departure in the way superscalar processors are designed. In particular, the PI proposes superscalar processor design automation. This project explores challenges and solutions at key levels: (1) automatic FPGA-based processor-in-system exploration, (2) efficient and automatic ISA/microarchitecture decoupling, (3) automatic RTL generation via a superscalar design language, and (4) a low-effort physical design strategy and alternative to custom design. This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF). ### SHF:Small: AnyCore: A Universal Superscalar Core Eric Rotenberg 09/01/10 - 08/31/14 Different applications achieve their highest performance on different processing hardware. The goal of this project is to design a universal computer architecture that can achieve the same effect as custom-fabricating the optimal processing hardware for arbitrary application behaviors. This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF). ### SHF:Small: EXACT: Explicit Dynamic-Branch Prediction with Active Updates Eric Rotenberg 09/15/09 - 08/31/14 Continued microprocessor performance scaling is hindered by many factors. One factor above all, the branch prediction bottleneck, constrains the ability to tackle other factors. This project proposes a new direction in branch prediction research. This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF). ### Streamlining Control-Flow Eric Rotenberg 01/01/11 - 12/31/15 This project comprehensively addresses the control-flow problem in high-performance processors, to significantly improve their performance and energy efficiency. This project is sponsored by Intel Corporation. ### A Password System Based on Sketches Wesley E. Snyder, Wenye Wang 08/12/11 - 08/11/14 Access control and user authentication are key elements for protecting information systems. Access control and protection from the insider threat has been identified as one of the most significant issues in information assurance. In many Army missions, keyboards and card readers may not be available; however, the soldier may be using a hand-held communication device with a touch-sensitive screen. In such a scenario, drawing a simple sketch is likely to be the most ecient and e ective mechanism for access control. The soldier in the tactical environment will be provided with an easy-to-use, high reliability access control mechanism. The text-based password has been a longtime mechanism for users to gain access to information system such as computers or network access. However to maintain security, users have been burdened with stringent password rules, such as password length and the use of special characters. Multiple passwords for di erent systems and frequently expiring passwords make the use the passwords a nightmare for many users. This frequently results in security risks, as users write their passwords down and use the same password on many systems. To overcome the burdens of password systems, the authors propose to develop a novel method for computer-access security, allowing the user to draw a simple sketch as his/her password. In this project we will develop a new sketch recognition algorithm, based on the PIs prior successful work in shape recognition. The new sketch based password system will be implemented and evaluated. The user desiring access (referred to as the artist hereafter), will draw a sketch on a digitizer pad or touch-sensitive screen (e.g. iPad). The sketch will be matched to a data base of sketches. The principal innovation of the proposed algorithm is treating the sketch as a function of time, and using local measures of that function as parameters for the shape-recognition algorithm, SKS. This project is sponsored by US Army - Army Research Office. ### CSR:Small:Efficient and Predictable Memory Hierarchy For High-Performance Embedded Systems Yan Solihin, Alexander G. Dean, Mihail L. Sichitiu, Thomas G. Wolcott 09/01/09 - 08/31/14 The proposed work will advance the state of the art in sensor networks for monitoring the underwater environment. The work will use these results in conjunction with other enhancements to an existing rapid software prototyping tool to create a low-cost sensor network infrastructure for intensively monitoring and exploring estuarine and shallow coastal environments. The PIs will collaborate with scientific and environmental professionals in North Carolina, the Southeastern US and the Chesapeake Bay area to develop, apply, evaluate and promote this infrastructure. We propose to build a low-cost estuarine sensor network infrastructure which relies upon wireless (RF) communication to support over-the-air communication to monitor data in real-time and upload it to the internet for dissemination. Data will be gathered by a variety of inexpensive submerged and above-water networked nodes, including fixed stations, buoys, and vehicles (remotely operated and autonomous), some of which have been developed by a collaborator at NOAA. This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF). ### SHF:Small:Collaborative Research:Beyond Secure Processors - Securing Systems Against Hardware Attacks Yan Solihin 09/15/09 - 08/31/14 Increasing amounts of potentially valuable data are stored and processed in computer system, which motivates increasingly sophisticated attacks to obtain and/or tamper with this information. Protection against such attacks is needed for many important features of secure computing, such as enforcement of copyright protection for content and software, prevention of reverse engineering, trusted distributed computing, and fairness (prevention of cheating) in virtual environments. One important emerging threat are hardware attacks, which exploit the fact that data can be read or modified directly in the system's memory using devices that dump or scan memory chips. Data transfered along system buses is similarly vulnerable to hardware attacks. These attacks may be more difficult to perform than software-based attacks, but they are also very powerful. A physical attack can bypass all software security protection in the system, allowing attackers to read memory locations that store cryptographic keys and other sensitive information that may be used in software protection schemes. Widely available and inexpensive mod-chips that bypass Digital Rights Management in game systems demonstrate that physical attacks are very realistic threats. We propose: (1) To conduct detailed investigation into secure booting and configuration mechanisms for secure processors, (2) To explore how secure processors can support system features such as virtualization, virtual memory, inter-process communication, secure I/O communication, and achieve all those with low performance and storage overheads, and (3) To investigate how secure processor technology can be supported in a variety of computer platforms such as single processor systems, mobile systems, and multiprocessor systems with various interconnect topologies. This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF). ### SHF:Small:Towards a Versatile Analytical Modeling Toolset for Evaluating Memory Hierarchy Design Yan Solihin 08/01/11 - 07/31/14 Today, the primary tool used for evaluating future computer system designs is simulation, where each machine instruction and its impact on processor and memory state are simulated in great details. While powerful and versatile, processor simulation is exceedingly slow: roughly four to five orders of magnitude slower than native execution. Unfortunately, in the future, solely relying on processor simulation will be too constraining, due to increasing cache sizes that requires longer simulation time, increasing use of hypervisor or user-level virtual machines that need to be simulated as well in addition to the Operating System, increasing number of cores on chip that result in longer simulation time, and increasing occurrence of multi-programmed and multi-threaded workload. Analytical modeling is an attempt to capture fundamental relationships between various parameters of a design and to capture how they affect performance or power/energy consumption. An analytical model is much faster to run and can be reasonably accurate. Unfortunately, widespread use of analytical models have been hampered by the lack of widely available toolset that researchers can use and build upon, and the high barrier of entry into using and developing them. The objective of this proposal is to integrate various disparate analytical models into a single toolset that can be used by researchers for computer architecture design and evaluation. The expected outcome of this project is a tool that aids processor simulation through three important roles: providing ability to reason about what parameters determine the outcome of a performance phenomenon, discovering insights into how architecture parameters fundamentally relate to one another, and providing first-order approximation that allows narrowing down the search space for simulation studies. The impact of this project is that it enables computer design and evaluation to be improved significantly in terms of quality (deeper insights can be obtained), as well as resource efficiency (less simulation time is required to arrive at the same observations). The project has the following components. One component is analysis of various analytical models in order to characterize their input, output, key techniques, and assumptions. Another component is common denominator analysis and model integration analysis, in order to identify common denominators of various models. The third component is a support infrastructure for the models. The fourth component is a toolset that integrates the analytical models, benchmarks, profiling tools, documentation into a software package that the community can use through an easy-to-use and intelligent interface. The final component is integration of the project into existing courses, with an emphasis on classroom materials suitable for undergraduate course. These materials will be made available for public download, and community enhancement and extension. This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF). ### Transformation Design and Metamaterials for Imaging Applications Daniel D Stancil, David Schurig 09/01/10 - 08/31/13 I propose to design and fabricate three dimensional lenses based on the modified Luneburg design. These lense will address IC comunity needs in specific frequency ranges of interest. The design will employ the transformtion method to find an intial material property specification with a subsequent relaxation to obtain a simplifed material property tensor that is at least diagonal in a convenient coordinate sytem or possibly isotropic. In that latter case, broadband operation is possible. These material specifications will be implemented with metamaterials. This project is sponsored by Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). ### High Performance Tunable Materials Phase II Jon-Paul Maria, Elizabeth C. Dickey, Michael B. Steer 06/20/11 - 01/31/14 Ferroelectric oxides such as barium strontium titanate (Ba1-xSrxTiO3 or BST) can be incorporated into frequency tunable RF and microwave devices creating a class of tunable circuits that enable advanced military and commercial radar, sensor, and communication systems. The progress of previous programs exploring these technologies has been promising, and state of the art tunable capacitors exhibit performance characteristics that are appropriate for widespread integration. All trajectories indicate that ferroelectrics will be a valuable future technology, by additional investments in basic issues of materials, integration, and design. This project is sponsored by Defense Microelectronics Activity. ### Sound and Electromagnetic Interacting Waves (MURI) Michael B. Steer, Mohammed A. Zikry, David Schurig, Hamid Krim 08/01/10 - 09/30/14 This project will develop the basic science of acoustic and electromagnetic interactions leading to the engineering of new sensors that can exploit the knowledge that these interactions provide about the environment. Stand-off probing of surface and buried objects using acoustic probes is complicated by the poor knowledge of nonlinear and diffusive acoustic effects. Great insights, including differentiation of objects, can be obtained by exploiting nonlinear acoustic interactions and by exploiting long-tail effects resulting from acoustic diffusion inside an object. The overall concept is to develop the fundamental knowledge enabling the development of a tricorder-like device for interrogating the environment thus contributing to total situational awareness This project is sponsored by US Navy-Office Of Naval Research. ### Time-Frequency and Non-Laplacian Phenomena at Radio Frequencies Michael B. Steer 09/30/12 - 09/29/15 Recent phenomenological investigations of the fundamental limits to the performance of radio, radar and sensor systems have revealed radio-frequency (RF) interference effects that do not have the expected integer calculus descriptions. Some of these effects derive from electro-thermal diffusive interactions and it is believed that many other effects similarly derive from diffusion. Also, time-frequency effects have been discovered in which the temporal response of electronics excited by a pulsed RF signal is significantly longer than linear frequency-domain analysis would imply. It is believed that these derive from diffusion-like effects as well and require fractional calculus. The project?s premise is that using integer calculus-based analysis has resulted in sources of interference in RF systems being missed. This project investigates the underlying physics of diffusive RF phenomena. Time-domain fractional calculus-based descriptions transformed into the frequency-domain become non-Laplacian (i.e. non-integer-based). However, conventional analysis of RF structures is based on integer-based Laplacian frequency-domain analysis derived from integer calculus. The project extends the engineer?s RF analysis toolkit to include non-Laplacian models and abstractions. The work will lead to new paradigms for understanding interference at RF, for enhancing RF systems, for deriving fundamental limits of performance at RF, for developing signatures, and for manipulating RF electronics. This project is sponsored by US Army - Army Research Office. ### High Frequency Devices and Circuits for Nanotubes and Nanowires Robert J. Trew, Ki Wook Kim 08/23/10 - 08/22/13 As a member of the research team led by the University of Arkansas, we will investigate electronic transport in graphene nanostructures for potential applications to high frequency (terahertz) sources and interconnects. Detailed theoretical models will be developed and multi-scale numerical simulations conducted to elucidate the unique advantages and fundamental limitations of this emerging material system. The obtained physical characteristics of graphene based nanostructures will be applied to devise and optimize advanced terahertz device concepts. Experimental demonstration will be pursued in collaboration with the team members. This project is sponsored by University of Arkansas. ### Novel Nanoscale Technology for Thermal Energy Harvesting Robert J. Trew, Ki Wook Kim 05/19/09 - 11/19/13 This research program proposes to explore the feasibility of engineering thermal radiation for application to thermal energy harvesting. The approach is to utilize the high energy density stored in the evanescent field of surface excitations present on a thermal source composed of a polar semiconductor, by transforming it into spectrally and/or spatially selective radiation for ready extraction. At nanoscale distances, near-field thermal excitations of polar semiconductors occupy narrow bands at THz frequencies. These excitations, in the form of surface waves, establish a quasi-coherent, evanescent field with high energy density. Properly designed surface microstructures can convert the power available in evanescent modes to propagating modes with high efficiency. The proposed effort is directed towards advancements in a theoretical model that can be used to both (1) investigate and develop an understanding of the fundamental physical mechanisms associated with the phenomenon, and (2) serve as an aid in designing experiments that can be used to verify the phenomenon, as well as serve as a guide to optimizing device structures. Various test structures will be fabricated and tested in order to verify the theoretical predictions and demonstrate the feasibility of engineered thermal emission. A number of rectification schemes will also be investigated for harvesting the enhanced thermal radiation in the THz frequency and eventually converting it to the dc energy. This project is sponsored by US Army - Army Research Laboratory. ### Reliability Modeling of High Voltage AlGaN/GaN HFETs Robert J. Trew, Griff L. Bilbro 03/14/08 - 12/31/13 This project is directed towards the development of mathematical models for AlGaN/GaN HFETs that can be used to investigate physical phenomena that affect both short term and long term reliability. Physical processes are modeled and used as a basis to explain reliability issues. This project is sponsored by University of California - Santa Barbara. ### CSR:Small: A Practical Data Dependence Profiler for Program Characterization and Optimization James Tuck 10/01/13 - 09/30/16 We'll design an infrastructure that leverages a fast and accurate DDP for characterization and optimization. This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF). ### Exploring Cross-Layer, Integrated Approaches for Improving the Reliability of Heterogeneous Multicore Processors James Tuck 04/01/13 - 03/31/16 This project, just underway, is exploring cross-layer techniques for improving system reliability due to hardware faults in future processors and software. Given the cross-layer nature of this project that includes cooperative hardware and software techniques, it provides an exceptional opportunity for undergraduate students to gain a deep knowledge of computer systems that spans the boundaries of traditional computing disciplines. Furthermore, given the large design space and challenging characteristics of the problems we are working on, there are many opportunities for undergraduate students to get involved and contribute to the research project. In particular, undergraduate students with a basic knowledge of software can code up algorithms that exploit redundancy in software, or they can evaluate techniques within the compiler or hardware and measure performance, reliability, and power trade-offs. Alternatively, students with Verilog coding experience can help implement reliability enhancing techniques for performance and power characterization using standard synthesis tools. By placing some of these activities in the hands of an undergraduate, they gain valuable design and research experience, and it allows graduate students to focus on the most challenging aspects of the project. This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF). ### Exploring Cross-Layer, Integrated Approaches for Improving the Reliability of Heterogeneous Multicore Processors James Tuck 04/01/13 - 03/31/16 As minimum feature sizes in microprocessor devices continue to scale down, the susceptibility of hardware to a plurality of faults is increasing. Resilient system design is no longer relegated to high-end, business applications where cost is no issue. Now even inexpensive consumer electronics will need some support for fault tolerance. However, approaches that double or triple system costs by replicating hardware are likely too expensive for consumer electronics, like phones, tablets, or laptops. This project will investigate a new way of modeling and supporting hardware fault tolerance that allows and relies on software and hardware working together cooperatively. The key idea is the design of a system vulnerability model (SVM) which approximates the vulnerability of an application to a hardware error while running on a given hardware platform. Using the model, each layer of the system, for example the CPU, offers knobs which can be tuned to control overall system vulnerability. This allows the design of systems that cheaply provide the right amount of fault tolerance for a given application. These research activities have several broader impacts. The results of this research could impact how future computer systems provide fault tolerance. Ultimately, such impact benefits society by helping sustain the demand for reliable computing devices. In the immediate future, it will support the training of graduate students in this critical area, and it will support enhancement of the undergraduate curriculum at NC State to include topics in fault tolerance. This project is sponsored by Semiconductor Research Corp.. ### CAREER: A Unified Study of Resilience-to-Failure in Multihop Wireless Networks Wenye Wang 03/01/06 - 08/31/13 Multihop wireless networks are expected to provide dependable communications against a wide range of failures, such as failures cased by node mobility and more importantly, misbehaviors and malicious attacks because they promise to have a significant impact on communications, information process, and next generation networking paradigm in complimenting cellular networks, local area Wi-Fi networks, and the Internet. Nevertheless, because of node mobility and distributed architecture, multihop wireless networks render a set of unique dynamics and vulnerability in providing dependable communications. The design goal of resilient networks has an significant impact on design paradigms and methodologies of multihop wireless networks in all aspects, such as routing, scheduling, topology control, quality of service, and access control. The field of resilience-to-failure is still in its adolescence as there is a critical gap in the fundamental understanding we need for future research in protocol design and algorithm implementation for mobile wireless networks. Therefore, we propose to design an analytical framework of network resilience and new algorithms in building a prototype in this work. This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF). ### Development of Platform and Tools for FREEDM Decentralized Monitoring and Control Wenye Wang, David Lee Lubkeman 09/01/12 - 08/31/14 The FREEDM concept is based on a decentralized distribution management system collectively referred to as the DGI (Distributed Grid Intelligence). The DGI supports a variety of functionalities for the FREEDM System including the plug-and-play functionality, power management (IPM), energy management (IEM) and fault management (IFM) services. Many of the IPM functionalities are potentially performed by lower layer DGI software modules embedded in the DSP controllers of the FREEDM devices such as the Solid State Transformer (SST), the Fault Interrupting Device (FID), DESD, DRER as well as related legacy devices. Furthermore, the DGI processes on distributed devices are linked by RSC (Reliable and Secure Communications) communications interfaces and associated protocols. This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM). ### ERC for Future Renewable Electric Energy Distribution and Management (FREEDM) Systems Alex Q. Huang, Ewan Gareth David Pritchard, Edward A. Baker, Srdjan Miodrag Lukic, Wenye Wang, Mesut E. Baran, Mo-Yuen Chow, Penny Shumaker Jeffrey, Mark A. Johnson 09/01/08 - 08/31/16 The FREEDM system vision is a vision for an Energy Internet. The Energy Internet requires that society move away from, or at least supplement, the traditional centralized generation, distribution, and consumption business model to one where every user can actively participate in the energy market. User participation is a major factor that has resulted in exponentially increasing innovation and ingenuity in the information technology sector. If the ?Information Internet? was the engine that powered our country?s economic growth in the last thirty years, then a similar and even more powerful Energy Internet will accomplish even more in the next several decades. The majority of the U.S. power grid was built in the early 1930s. This aging and overburdened power grid infrastructure is under tremendous pressure to deliver the rising demand of domestic electricity consumption. At present, the majority of U.S. electricity generation still heavily relies on environmentally costly fossil fuel. The wide adoption of centralized renewable energy generation is still a huge challenge because of the high cost of expanding and maintaining the transmission system. Driven by environmental and economic incentives, there is an urgent need to develop a new residential distribution infrastructure (Energy Internet) for plug-and-play of a large number of distributed renewable energy generation/storage and dispatch able load. The FREEDM System vision of an Energy Internet is inspired by the paradigm shift in the computer industry in early 1980s. The centralized computer mainframes gave way to a distributed computing infrastructure which allows individual users to access via a worldwide internet. In a similar paradigm shift, highly distributed and scalable renewable energy resources must play a primary role, which the centralized bulk power plants are currently serving. While legacy power system operations are solely driven by least-cost and reliability concerns, the Energy Internet innovations are completely reshaping the traditional views of our power generation, distribution, and consumption, social environment and business world. This innovative paradigm shift can only be achieved by encouraging the high participation of residential customers with new business models, in which the centralized, monopolistic energy market has to give way to heterogeneous, decentralized business structures. Figure 1 shows the envisioned Energy Internet business and market framework, put forward by the FREEDM Systems Center in Year 5. In this Energy Internet market, individual residential customers or a group of entities organized as an Energy Cell is not only the electricity consumers but can also be the electricity suppliers with their own unique preferences, environmental impact, and business strategies. The utility company, another Energy Cell, no longer owns power plants exclusively nor do they profit by only selling energy, more emphasis is placed on their role as a service provider for the energy transactions among and between the Energy Cells. Transactions in the new energy market take place in a manner similar to how today?s stock market operates. The Energy Internet allows those new participants to fully engage with a dynamic and diverse energy market through a distributed decision making process. To realize the vision of the above Energy Internet, the underlying power delivery and management system (distribution infrastructure) must change significantly from today?s system. The new grid must support large amounts of plug-and-play activity (some of these are a result of the Energy Cell?s market and business decisions) in a high distributed generation penetration scenario. The FREEDM System, under the development by the FREEDM System ERC, is such a revolutionary and resilient power grid suitable for this purpose. Figure 1-2 shows the FREEDM system architecture and the major smart components. The new system has to deliver the following four salient features: 1) Plug-and-play (PnP) capability of distributed renewable energy resources, distributed ener This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF). ### FREEDM System Demonstration" 1 MVA Green Energy Hub - Center Core Project Alex Q. Huang, Mesut E. Baran, Wenye Wang, Subhashish Bhattacharya, Iqbal Husain, David Lee Lubkeman 08/15/10 - 08/14/14 Development and demonstrate FREEDM System in a realistic 1 MVA 12kV System. This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM). ### NeTS: A Timing Perspective on Information Dissemination in Vehicular Adhoc Networks Wenye Wang, Alexandra Duel-Hallen 09/01/10 - 08/31/14 This proposal supplement focuses on channel measurements to complement the theoretical investigation for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) of the parent proposal. As one of the most promising large-scale applications of mobile ad hoc networks, vehicular networking has emerged as a radically new paradigm for the design of networking protocols, mobility models, and a variety of new applications for our daily lives. This technology has its roots in on-board sensors in vehicles, global position systems (GPS) receivers, and algorithms/protocols in ad hoc networks, which enable vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications without infrastructure equipment (e.g., base stations in cellular systems). While a good level of understanding of network performance has been accumulated, it does not fulfill the needs of VANET, partially because of lack of deployment of sound channel models, and partially due to the challenges of modeling and analysis for vehicular environments with significant dynamics and randomness. As vehicular communications advance large-scale and social networks, there is an acute and timely demand for exploring fundamental principles of mobility-induced channels and network dynamics, which have not been studied systematically, but have tremendous impact on a wide range of research areas, such as channel prediction, routing protocol designs, optimization techniques for performance analysis and estimation, and modeling of network architecture and topology. This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF). ### Robust Network Architecture Against Random Threats in WMD Environments: Theoretical Limits and Recovery Strategies Wenye Wang, Hamid Krim 04/01/08 - 07/31/14 The national infrastructure, such as civilian and military telecommunication networks, power grids, and transportation systems are vulnerable to large-scale physical attacks in WMD environments. Under such attacks, the intrinsic nature of {\em networking} inevitably surrenders a given infrastructure to cascading or correlated failures in both temporal and spatial domains, which in turn, have a great and potentially devastating impact on network operation availability and performance. In the extension period of this project, we will focus on network vulnerability to such failures and on assessing network availability, subject to variations in traffic and user demands, as well as critical elements. To this end, we will first study the underlying network topology that is used to monitor, detect, and identify attacks, by analyzing the topological structure (i.e., operational state) of a network. We will subsequently explore how {\em cascading} and {\em correlated} failures are formed and will propagate in networks, and how such failures disrupt communications. Then we will define a set of new metrics to measure/evaluate network vulnerabilities in order to identify the conditions and scenarios that would have the maximum destructive effect on the network in geographical regions, virtual domains, and connectivity. This project is sponsored by Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). ### Travel Grant for Mobicom 2012 Wenye Wang 10/01/12 - 09/30/13 This proposal is to request travel funding for students at U.S. institutions to attend the 18th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom 2012), which is sponsored by ACM SIGMOBILE and will be held August 22-26, 2012 in Istanbul, Turkey. Priority will be given to students who will benefit from attending this conference, but are unlikely to attend due to the unavailability of travel funding. NSF has generously been supporting Student Travel Grants for MobiCom for several years in a row, thus playing an instrumental role in establishing this widely successful student travel award program. This program has significantly boosted the participation of US-based students to the conference. To help keep increasing the representation and participation of United States-based students in the conference, support from NSF (at the total amount of$15,000) is requested to help cover the expenses of approximately 10-15 US-based graduate students.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### CREATIV Dynamic Regulatory Modeling of the Iron Deficiency Response in Arabidopsis thaliana

Cranos Williams, Joel J. Ducoste, Terri Long, James Tuck
08/15/12 - 07/31/17

In this proposal, we present a novel paradigm for identifying putative cis-regulatory promoter targets that control the regulation of stress responses in plants. This paradigm will also be used to identify critical regulatory components that differentiate the regulatory stress response across different cell types. We first develop the computational and analytical infrastructure needed to build a dynamic model of the gene regulatory network from time-course transcription profile data that quantifies the stress response. Novel analytical model refinement techniques are proposed to reduce the space of feasible solutions, generate specifications for model validation experiments, and test functional redundancy in the response. Parallel computing architectures will be used to scale the implementation of these model refinement approaches to the size and complexity associated with gene regulatory networks. The dynamic model of the gene regulatory network will be used to identify relationships between genes, build corresponding functional modules, and identify putative cis-regulatory promoter targets and regulatory components that can be used to alter responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Previous cell-specific transcription profiling has indicated that cell types have distinct expression profiles and respond differently to stress. We will generate cell-specific time-course transcription profiles using experiment specifications derived from the dynamic gene regulatory network. These data will be used to create a cell-specific dynamic gene regulatory network for identifying regulators that are key in differentiating the stress response between cell types.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Exploring Frontiers in Plant Systems Biology

Cranos Williams, Heike W. Sederoff, Terri Long
10/01/12 - 09/30/13

Plant Systems Biology resides at the intersection of biology and engineering, where practitioners integrate multi-scale systems engineering approaches with biological data. Systems biology is used to model, understand, and control combinatorial biological interactions across physiological, structural, and biomolecular processes. Directed focus of systems biology on plants will facilitate the exploration of the governing mechanisms behind complex biological processes, culminating in the design of whole plant systems; specifically the control of factors that impact plant metabolism, development, and adaptation. Successful Plant Systems Biology research and educational programs will also be at the forefront of the transformation of plant biology in the post-genomic era. While there exists reasonable efforts in plant systems biology that has been established in both the United States and in Europe, consolidated efforts in this field for modeling and controlling whole plant systems remains elusive. With all parties having similar long term goals, it would benefit all parties if efforts were taken to standardize approaches, format data repositories, and clarify policies around coordinated approaches for addressing common objectives. We request funds to support a Plant Systems Biology workshop that will provide a venue for 30 national and international researchers with interests in plant systems biology to discuss and highlight limitations and focus on critical questions associated with feasibility and necessary technological and experimental advances for large-scale design of plant systems. The specific workshop objectives are as follows: 1) Explore and identify areas of complementary interests, needs, and opportunities associated with the growing discipline of Plant Systems Biology. 2) Identify the primary research grand challenges and explore potential limits of the field from both the biological, computational, and engineering perspectives. 3) Formulate funding strategies for future collaborations.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Modeling of Cellulose, Hemicellulose and Lignin-Carbohydrate Complex Formation and Regulation to Understand Plant Cell Wall Structure

Vincent Chiang, Ronald R. Sederoff, Hou-min Chang, David C. Muddiman, Cranos Williams, Fikret Isik, Joel J. Ducoste, Christopher P. Smith
09/01/11 - 11/30/14

Plant cell walls are the essential components of feedstocks for biomass based liquid fuel alternatives to petroleum. The secondary cell walls of woody plants contribute greatly to biomass and are targets for improving potential feedstocks. In the application of systems biology to development of new biofuels, as in any complex biological process, predictive modeling is the central goal. We propose to use a systems approach with genome based information and mathematical modeling to advance the understanding of the biosynthesis of the plant secondary cell wall. To do this, we will use multiple transgenic perturbations and measure effects on plants using advanced quantitative methods of genomics, proteomics, and structural chemistry. The combination of quantitative analysis, transgenesis, statistical inference and systems modeling provide a novel and comprehensive strategy to investigate the regulation, biosynthesis and properties of the secondary cell wall.

This project is sponsored by US Dept. of Energy (DOE).

### Regulation and Modeling of Lignin Biosynthesis

Vincent Chiang, Ronald R. Sederoff, Joel J. Ducoste, Fikret Isik, David C. Muddiman, Cranos Williams, Christopher P. Smith, Reza A Ghiladi
09/15/09 - 08/31/14

Lignin is a unique and complex phenylpropanoid polymer, important in plant development and response to environment. We propose to advance our knowledge of lignin biosynthesis by developing a comprehensive pathway model of regulatory and metabolic flux control mechanisms. Our primary tool will be systematic gene specific perturbation in transgenic Populus trichocarpa. We will perturb all 34 known lignin pathway and regulatory network genes in P. trichocarpa using artificial microRNA (amiRNA) and RNAi suppression. From each independent transgenic perturbation, we will obtain quantitative information on transcript and protein abundance, enzyme kinetics, metabolite concentrations, and lignin structural chemistry. Using statistical correlation and path analysis, we will integrate this information to develop a mechanistic-based signaling graph and metabolic flux model for the pathway and its regulation leading to specific lignin structures. This model will reveal regulatory constraints on steady-state flux distributions and show how genes and other process components affect flux activity of lignin precursors, composition, and linkages. In this way, we will provide a systems biology approach to this fundamental pathway. There are few opportunities in higher plants to integrate genomics, biochemistry, chemistry and modeling to develop a comprehensive understanding of biosynthesis and structure of a major component of morphology and adaptation.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Achieving Performance and Power Efficiency for Single Threaded Programs

Huiyang Zhou
01/01/11 - 12/31/15

This project investigates microarchitectural techniques to achieve high performance and energy efficiency for single threaded applications.

This project is sponsored by Intel Corporation.

### CAREER: Architecutural Support for Automated Software Debugging

Huiyang Zhou
08/17/09 - 06/30/14

Given their ever increasing complexity, modern software systems are plagued with software defects, commonly known as bugs. It usually takes significant amount of efforts for software developers to locate the defects after a program failure is observed. Due to the limited on-chip resource at the time, traditional architectural support for debugging was limited to a basic set of primitive functions like breakpoints and watchpoints. With the advances in semiconductor technology, the resource constraint is less of a concern and much more powerful architectural support becomes possible to be implemented to ease software debugging. In this research, novel software-hardware integrated approaches are developed to automatically pinpoint software defects and the aim is to develop a computer that can automatically pinpoint the faculty code in either sequential or parallel programs and potentially generate a fix to the defect.

Previous work on architectural support for debugging mainly focused on one aspect of debugging activities including faithfully reproducing program failures or detecting potential bugs. In comparison, this research introduces novel architectural support for: bug detection to report potential bugs, bug isolation to find the relevant bugs based on cause-effect relationship between the potential bugs and the program failure, and bug validation to generate quick fixes to the isolated bugs, thereby forming a complete process of automated debugging. Bugs in both sequential and parallel programs are the target in this research. For parallel programs, the research investigates thread interaction under the transactional memory programming model and develops novel automated debugging schemes for concurrency bugs. The research also includes the prototype of the novel architectural supports to evaluate their effectiveness with real-world applications.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### SHF:Small:CPU-GPU Collaborative Execution in Fusion Architectures

Huiyang Zhou
08/01/12 - 07/31/15

Recent advances in semiconductor technologies have led to fusion architectures, in which the central processing units (CPUs) and graphics processing units (GPUs) are integrated onto the same chip. Sandy

Bridge processors from Intel and accelerated processing units (APUs) from AMD are such examples.

However, current fusion architectures mainly take advantage of form factors and CPUs and GPUs operate very similar to discrete parts. In this proposal, we make the key observation that fused CPU-GPU architectures enable new opportunities to address important challenges in either CPU computing or GPU computing, which is also referred to as general-purpose computation on GPU (GPGPU).

We propose novel CPU-GPU collaborative execution paradigms, in which CPUs and GPUs execute programs in a synergic manner. In CPU-assisted GPU computing, CPUs runs ahead either to warm up the shared data cache for GPU threads or to inform GPUs the thread organization for incoming divergent branches so as to improve the GPU resource utilization. In GPU-assisted CPU computing, GPUs will either profile the locality of CPU programs to improve the memory hierarchy performance or monitor the run-time anomalies to enhance the reliability of CPU execution.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).