# Research

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## Research Projects

The Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering boasts an active and agile research community comprised of our nationally recognized staff, students, and collaborating colleagues. This cadre of scientists is bolstered by grants, both private and public, to further explore our field's unknown horizons.

Our department is filled with knowledgeable, astute individuals dedicated to uncovering new ideas and technology in the areas of Bioelectriconics, Communications, Computer Architecture, Nanoelectronics, and Power Systems. Our department encourages these efforts by providing a number of cutting-edge facilities and services to cultivate scientific progress.

Our research team is world recognized and funded by top names in both the public and private sectors. Government organization such as The National Science Foundation, The Army Research Office, and the U.S. Department of Energy, as well as corporations such as Cisco Systems, Qualcomm, Hewlett-Packard, and Red Hat have all allocated resources to further our research and development.

Our college has been awarded two Engineering Research Centers (ERCs) by the National Science Foundation. These ERCs are part of a nation-wide group of university level interdisciplinary centers that work in partnership with local industry to pursue strategic solutions to complex engineering problems. ERCs have the potential to revolutionize entire products, systems, methodologies, and industries. This support is a large reason why our college is ranked seventeenth in the nation in research expenditures and fourteenth in industry support, according to the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) in 2007.

Current Research Grants By Type

Research in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering covers the gamut from basic to applied. Specific topics include not only those under our eight research areas, but themes such as novel ways to teach fundamental concepts, engineering as a life-long discipline, and the engineering education community.

The following list represents the projects active during the July 1st, 2014 through June 31st, 2015 fiscal year. Unfunded research is conducted continuously as the scientific curiosity of our faculty lead them to new areas of inquiry. Although we list only the principal investigators from each project, research is typically carried out through collaboration of the faculty, their students, and colleagues. This list of projects is updated daily. Links to compiled listings of previous years' projects are posted on this page's sidebar as they become available.

All Projects: 179 found

### Evaluation of Direct Antenna Modulation (DAM) Schemes for Antenna Miniaturization

09/01/14 - 08/31/17

Emerging communication, sensing, and tracking applications continue to require smaller antennas, driven by the form factor of wireless devices. However, while many electronic components benefit from rapidly decreasing size according to Moore’s Law, antennas face miniaturization limitations when their sizes are below a quarter-wavelength that negatively impact their gain, efficiency, system range, and bandwidth.

Due to physical requirements on the amount of electromagnetic energy stored in the near field of resonant structure such as a small antenna, a modulated pulse applied to the antenna inherently experiences some “ringing” in the time domain. In the frequency domain this is equivalent to a narrowband response. Because of this response, the antenna effectively acts as a narrowband filter, and wideband, short-time pulses cannot be effectively transmitted or received, thereby limiting the data rate.

Recent evidence suggests that it may be possible to increase the data rate while maintaining a small electrical size by directly modulating the antenna’s impedance in sequence with the modulated carrier wave applied to the antenna’s feed. However, no comparison has been made between the direct antenna modulation (DAM) scheme and a conventional scheme using typical communications metrics. In this project, we will 1) design and simulate a DAM transmitter and conventional receiver in order to understand how varying signal to noise ratios (SNR) affect key system metrics such as bit error rate (BER) and 2) develop a testbed to generate DAM signals with a reconfigurable antenna in order to characterize the performance of these systems.

This project is sponsored by Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

### Modeling and Fabrication of Microscale Wire Grids for Co-Located Transparent Antennas and Solar Cells

04/01/14 - 02/01/15

Space-based communications and sensing are critical for national security, scientific discovery, and many electronic conveniences in our everyday lives. Due to the high cost of orbital launch, large and expensive satellites may soon be replaced by so-called “microsatellites” and “nanosatellites”. On these small satellites, solar cells and antennas are often competing for space because their occupied area relates directly to their performance. In traditional architectures, an antenna and solar cell cannot be co-located because the antenna is made of an optically opaque conductor, blocking light entering the cell. However, both transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) and dense metallic grids can create antenna apertures that are conductive at microwave frequencies yet optically transparent. Recent results have shown that metallic grids made with highly conductive inks can perform better than solid layers of the low conductivity TCOs. New advances in direct-write fabrication technology have enabled the patterning of highly conductive microscale features and simple antenna designs using such grids have been demonstrated. This project seeks to develop the fabrication and design techniques necessary to create the electrically large elements and arrays with complex feeding networks that would be required in practice. Specifically, we will set up a direct-write fabrication laboratory where antenna samples can be fabricated and measured. To reduce the computational complexity when designing large antennas and arrays, we will develop new surface impedance models for the dense grids. Furthermore, transparent transmission lines for feeding large arrays will be investigated. The combination of these technologies will mark an important step toward the next generation of small satellites communications and energy harvesting.

This project is sponsored by NCSU NC Space Grant Consortium.

### Wireless, Integrated Biaxial Strain Sensors Using Silver Nanowires

07/01/14 - 06/30/15

This project will leverage recently demonstrated flexible silver nanowire antennas to develop wireless strain sensors that can sense strain in two dimensions. Current antenna-based sensors can sense strain in one dimension, the new sensors will be designed with multiple radiating frequencies which respond differently to strain in orthogonal directions. In this way, the frequency response of the antenna can be mapped to the actual two dimensional strain applied. We will investigate several aspects of these sensors including techniques to make multiple resonances that are affected uniquely by biaxial strain and how the physical size of the sensor affects the ability to accurately predict strain.

This project is sponsored by Southeastern Center for Electrical Engineering Education.

### PowerAmerica Baliga Task 2.8 and 2.83

B. Jayant Baliga, John F. Muth
12/01/14 - 01/31/16

Tasks 2.82 and 2.83 for PowerAmerica

This project is sponsored by NCSU PowerAmerica: Next Generation Electronics Manufacturing Innovation Institute.

### Silicon Carbide Devices for FID and SST Applications

B. Jayant Baliga, Alex Q. Huang, Veena Misra, Douglas C Hopkins
09/01/08 - 08/31/15

The IFM functionality requires semiconductor switches that can rapidly turn-off line currents whenever a fault is detected by the system. The semiconductor device must be capable of supporting the peak AC line voltage in both directions. It must have low on-state voltage drop to reduce power losses during normal operating states of the system. At present, the FID has been implemented in Gen-I using 6.5-kV IGBTs with a series diode to provide reverse blocking capability. This combination has an on-state voltage drop of nearly 15 volts because three 6.5-kV silicon IGBTs and three 6.5-kV silicon diodes are connected in series. The present configuration cannot provide fault current limiting.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM).

### DGI Algorithms for Volt-Var Control

Mesut E. Baran
09/01/11 - 08/31/15

Volt/var control is one of the key applications on a FREEDM system which require fast response. In last three years, PI have developed algorithms for this application. The first application involves using directional Overcurrent Relays with a pilot signal to provide alternative protection for the FREEDM system which does not require very fast communication. The second application involves a volt/var control scheme to provide voltage control on a FREEDM system. A distributed control scheme has been developed for this purpose.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM).

### ERC College Education Program

Mesut E. Baran
09/01/08 - 08/31/14

See attached documents - this is a supplement for FREEDM project 529665 from the prime FREEDM 529598

This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM).

### Fault Locating and Prediction on Distribution Feeders

Mesut E. Baran
06/01/10 - 12/31/14

Various feeder monitoring projects have been undertaken over the last decade for power quality and automation. These studies have indicated that one of the main uses of the monitoring data will be to locate the faults. The studies have also demonstrated that the monitored data contains signatures of many disturbances due mainly to the equipment disoperation or failure. These signatures therefore can be used to identify equipment that is disoperation or about to fail. The goal of this project is to enhance these two functions and demonstrate their performance on an actual test system.

This project is sponsored by First Energy Corporation (formerly Allegheny Energy, Inc.).

### Recovery Act - Workforce Training for the Electric Power Sector

Mesut E. Baran, Alex Q. Huang, Subhashish Bhattacharya, Pam Page Carpenter
07/01/10 - 06/30/15

North Carolina State University will develop and implement an accelerated, professional Master of Engineering degree to educate the next generation electric power engineering workforce (which includes engineers, innovators, entrepreneurs, and industry leaders) who will be ready to move into leadership positions within the electric power industry and facilitate the transformation of the current power system into a national, clean-energy smart grid. The proposed program, Master of Engineering in Electric Power Systems (ME-EPS), is an innovative program which will give students a thorough understanding of the tools, methods, and practice of electric power engineering through an intensive educational experience directly applicable to an industry career. The degree will be suitable for a recent graduate, as well as experienced professionals seeking retraining to change careers or enhanced training to expand their career opportunities.

The proposed ME-EPS program will fill a critical need for electric power industry engineering staff development, as its courses will be carefully targeted to meet specific industry needs identified by a thorough needs assessment. The ME-EPS program goal is to provide a comprehensive professional graduate degree that encompasses a broad treatment of the engineering, management, and profession skills needed in industry. Hence, this new program is fundamentally different from other degree programs and professional "short courses" currently offered. The program will consist of a set of integrated courses that will cover both core power engineering topics, as well as new cross-disciplinary technical topics relevant to the clean-energy smart grid. The program integrates four main components:

i) Core power engineering topics integrated into three courses: Fundamentals of Power Engineering, Power System Operation and Control, and Power Distribution System Operation and Management.

ii) Cross-disciplinary courses for smart grid applications. These will be totally new courses not available in current engineering programs: Electric Power Generation; Power Electronics and Its Power System Applications; Communication and Cyber Security Systems for Smart Grid; and Distribution Systems and Smart Grid Applications.

iii) Hands-on-Experience on Smart Grid Applications: Each course will have a lab or a project to provide hands on experience. To further promote integration of concepts and provide hands on experience, there will be a capstone project.

iv) Professional Skills Training: To complement the engineering training and provide professional skills, the program will include three integrated courses: The Business of the Electric Utility Industry, Engineering Economics and Project Management, and Professional Skills.

The proposed program will be an intensive 10-month program to be taught in three sessions: a one month summer session focusing on fundamentals of power engineering, and two regular fall and spring semester sessions each with five classes. Thus, the second major outcome of the project will be the large number of engineers to be trained through this program with the skills urgently needed by the power sector. The proposed program will train and educate three cohorts of students averaging 20, 30 and 50 in Years 1 to 3, respectively. The graduates of this innovative program will be highly sought after in the industry which will be facing severe engineering shortages in the near future.

This project is sponsored by US Dept. of Energy (DOE).

### CIF: Small: Universal Signal Estimation from Noisy Measurements

Dror Zeev Baron
09/01/12 - 08/31/15

Motivation: A ubiquitous feature in many signal processing systems is to learn the input statistics from historical data. In these systems, Bayesian methods perform statistically optimal signal processing. However, there are applications including file compression, speech recognition, network monitoring, and compressed sensing in which it might be impractical to learn the statistics a priori. In such applications, a statistical approach that adapts to the data at hand must be used.

The information theory community has championed the use of universal algorithms, they achieve the best possible statistical performance asymptotically despite not knowing the input statistics.

These algorithms have had tremendous impact in lossless compression, where the goal is to describe data as succinctly as possible while allowing a decoder to reproduce the input perfectly. In sharp contrast, universal algorithms have had little impact on other areas.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Compressive Imaging via Approximate Message Passing

Dror Zeev Baron
08/01/14 - 04/30/15

A new algorithmic framework for compressive imaging will be formulated. The new approach should be better than the current state-of-art algorithms in terms of both reconstruction quality and runtime.

This project is sponsored by US Army - Army Research Office.

### Engineering Strain in InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Wells for Improved Optical Devices

Salah M. Bedair, Nadia A. El-Masry
09/01/14 - 08/31/17

Abstract:

Current optical devices based on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures suffer from poor performance at long emission wavelengths due to low quantum efficiency and the droop phenomena. Some of the limitations are related to the very high strain and the accompanied piezoelectric fields present in the InGaN wells. We propose a strain balanced multiple quantum well (SBMQW) structure made of a thick InxGa1-xN template followed by InyGa1-yN/GaN MQW, where x < y.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### GOALI:Cooperative Integration of High Efficiency Multijunction Solar Cell Structures

Salah M. Bedair
10/01/11 - 09/30/15

We develop technique to improve the efficiency of multi-junction solar cell structure. The techniques make better use of the solar spectrum, so each cell: Ge-GaAs ?InGaP will pass the same short circuit current. This will move the effective band gap of both the middle and top cell to lower values. We will maintain the lattice matched conditions in this approach, avoiding defects that may compromise the quality of these materials, specially the top cell.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Growth of Low Defect Density III- Nitride Compounds on Nanowires

Salah M. Bedair
09/15/11 - 08/31/15

This is a Graduate Research Supplement (GRS) request is made to extend the support of a promising PhD graduate student of Hispanic origin to continue working in my research group. This supplement will be used in conjunction with our NSF project # 1105842 titled "Growth of low Defect Density III-N compounds on Nanowires". This supplement request will be used to provide the student stipend, health insurance, tuition, and for attending conferences.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Technology Enabling Ultra High Concentration Multi-Junction Cells

Salah M. Bedair, John R. Hauser
09/01/11 - 12/31/15

We propose to reduce the current cost of multijunction (MJ) solar cells by developing a robust tunnel junction (TJ) to connect the various sub-cells. This TJ is capable of operating at high solar concentration (~2000?e) with high peak current and minimal voltage drop across the TJ.

Tunnel Junction Problems and Proposed Approaches:

1) The properties of as-grown tunnel junctions (TJ) deteriorate due to high temperature exposure, during the growth of the middle and top cells, which make the MJ structure not suitable for high solar concentration.

Approach: Insert diffusion barriers and modify the band structure at the junction interface.

2) Fluctuations in the TJ properties due to non-uniform doping levels and the variation in the concentration optics affect the performance of the MJ solar structure.

Approach: Increase excess current by the manipulation of impurities in the highly doped films.

This project is sponsored by US Dept. of Energy (DOE).

### 15 kV SiC IGBT Power Modules for Grid Scale Power Conversion

Subhashish Bhattacharya, Alex Q. Huang, Julie Schwindt
09/01/10 - 12/31/14

Evaluation of 1MVA Transformer-less Intelligent Power Substation (TIPS) power converter topologies - based on 15kV SiC IGBTs. Develop control and controller implementation and controller validation for the 1MVA/100kVA Transformer-less Intelligent Power Substation (TIPS) power converter. Build and test the 100kVA bi-directional TIPS power converter. Performance evaluation and scale up efficiency estimations to 1MVA Transformer-less Intelligent Power Substation (TIPS) power converter.

This project is sponsored by Cree, Inc..

### Demonstration of Validated SST Models in Looped System LSSS Case Studies Including Islanding, Blackstart, volt/var (VVC) and CVR Control Functionalities

Subhashish Bhattacharya
09/01/12 - 08/31/15

The LSSS model objective is to demonstrate the proper operation of the components developed for the FREEDM looped distribution system. Typically the distribution systems in the world are radial networks. It was recognized that the distributed generation requires the transformation of the radial networks to a loop network or a quasi-loop network which assures double contingency for generation. The latest development in automated smart distribution grid is a network where all feeders are terminated by sectionalizing or reclosing switch at both end. The specific objectives of this project are to demonstrate the developed and validated SSTs – there are three distinct SSTs with their distinct control functionalities and ratings – (1) Substation SST (2-10MVA); (2) Load SST (3-phase and >100kVA); (3) Load SST (1-phase and 20kVA) – for all SST control functionalities including islanding, black-start and feeder level volt-var control and CVR (Conservation Voltage Regulation), in presence of DRERs and DESDs in looped feeder system.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM).

Mesut E. Baran, Subhashish Bhattacharya, Alex Q. Huang
09/01/11 - 08/31/15

There are two main subtasks in this project:

ST1 (Baran): Benefit of Volt/Var control and Advanced protection on FREEDM systems.

This subtask aims at conducting comparative studies on a prototype FREEDM system in order to assess the effectiveness of Volt/Var control and System Protection on a FREEDM system as compared to a conventional system. This assessment can then be used to do cost/benefit analysis on the FREEDM systems.

Dr. Baran has been working on these two applications –volt/var control and system protection and has conducted preliminary assessment studies. To facilitate the assessment, basic benefits metrics have been defined. This task aims at conducting a more comprehensive benefits analysis by using the FREEDM system developed for LSSS testbed

This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM).

### Green Energy Hub (GEH) Demonstration Year 7

David Lee Lubkeman, Subhashish Bhattacharya, Mo-Yuen Chow, Iqbal Husain
08/15/14 - 08/31/15

The Green Energy Hub testbed is an integrated hardware system demonstration incorporating technologies from the Enabling Technology and Fundamental Science research planes

This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM).

### Power Conversion Systems (PCS) Performance and Reliability Characterization During Value Added Functionality

Subhashish Bhattacharya
03/01/12 - 01/15/15

In the second phase of the project, the reliability model for the ESS (Energy Storage System) powered inverter tied to the power grid shall be expanded to include both voltage support and frequency support to the grid. Thermal and electrical models for capacitors shall be refined; possibilities of manufacturer test information and impedance spectroscopy shall be investigated and incorporated in the models. Additionally, for the DC link capacitor a comparative investigation shall be made between DC film and DC electrolytic component types (weakest link in the converter for failures and lifetime). The work of the Phase 1 comparison between the baseline ESS operation and the addition of voltage support value-added functionality shall be expanded to also include dynamic performance characterization. In addition, the frequency support functionality will be investigated with detailed generator and governor-exciter models, and PCS converter specifications and their performance characterization.

This project is sponsored by Sandia National Laboratories.

Subhashish Bhattacharya, John F. Muth
12/01/14 - 01/31/16

This project is sponsored by NCSU PowerAmerica: Next Generation Electronics Manufacturing Innovation Institute.

### Resilient Multiterminal HVDC Using High Voltage High Frequency Electronics Capability

Subhashish Bhattacharya
04/04/12 - 01/22/15

GE Global Research in collaboration with North Carolina State University and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute proposes a resilient multi-terminal current-link based HVDC transmission technology, to enable dynamic routing of electric power with high efficiency and reliability. The proposed technology is modular which allows system scalability to achieve any voltage and power rating. Each module is based on a high-voltage high-frequency power conversion topology in which the galvanic isolation is achieved by a high-frequency (20-50kHz) step-up transformer. Hence, the low-frequency grid side transformer is eliminated which results significant reduction in the system footprint. Due to current-link based power transmission, the proposed technology is naturally fault tolerant and hence it is suitable for multi-terminal HVDC system.

The nature of the proposed work includes both ?proof of concept? and ?early stage device prototyping? categories. Following tasks will be executed to satisfy the technical performance targets of the proposed technology:

- Circuit level analysis, design and control of the module

- Steady-state and dynamic analysis of the system

- Real-time demonstration of the system based on a commercial RTDS platform

- Experimental prototype and demonstration of a three terminal, 10kV, 100kW each, multi-terminal HVDC network

- Demonstration of fault modes and fail-safe operation

This project is sponsored by GE Global Research.

### Solid State and Hybrid DC Circuit Breaker for Multi-Terminal DC Networks

Subhashish Bhattacharya
02/25/13 - 12/31/14

The goal of this project is to develop concepts, technology development and laboratory based scaled prototype implementation of Solid State Circuit Breaker (SSCB) ? including Hybrid SSCB, for both AC and DC applications. The objective also is to focus on the DC SSCB development for both MVDC and HVDC grids.

The necessity of SSCB for AC applications is from the requirements of fast control and co-ordination in meshed ac transmission systems ? more so, with the integration of dynamically changing renewable energy resources such as large-scale penetration of wind energy into some transmission corridors. In such cases, the problem may be compounded by the presence of FACTS devices for voltage regulation and power flow control and the required co-ordination under dynamic conditions.

The technology development for DC SSCB is becoming very important to the active research and technology development in both MV and HV DC grids. The HVDC grids concept is mainly motivated by integration of large-scale off-shore wind farms and the recent concepts of Multi-terminal (MT) DC grids for power transmission and then MV based MTDC grids for power distribution to large cities.

The research on fast DC breakers is a 45+ year old topic: challenges at fundamental level - Fast operation (less than 5ms) without zero crossing; - Absorb considerable system energy GE Corporate R&D tested one in 1975-78, 400kV, 2kA; 10kA breaker by Toshiba, and other R&D labs 70-80s?. 2010 onward Hybrid DC breakers required for Multi-terminal DC system requires fault/pre-fault system restoration in less than 5ms.

The focus of this project will be to develop concepts, technology development and laboratory based prototype implementation of Solid State Circuit Breaker (SSCB) ? including Hybrid SSCB - for both AC and DC applications. The ac and dc applications will include concept development at both distribution and transmission voltages.

This project is sponsored by Electric Power Research Institute, Inc..

### Solid State Transformer Study and Development

Subhashish Bhattacharya
07/01/13 - 07/24/14

To study the SST architectures trade space encompassing topologies, device types, cost, size and weight for medium voltage level applications.

The feasibility study of different topologies of SST based on switch count and rating (both peak voltage and current), switching and conduction losses of different SiC and Si devices, size, weight and functionally of these topologies will be done. These topologies are:

(1) AC to AC single stage converter - for direct power conversion

(2) AC-DC and DC-AC two stage converter – with a non-isolated DC stage

(3) AC-DC, DC-DC and DC-AC three-stage converter – with high-frequency transformer isolated DC-DC stage which can allow connection of DC side energy storage or PV interface and DC loads

This project is sponsored by GRIDCO Systems.

### Task Order 0006 Development of Electrical Power Management System of Small Satellites

Subhashish Bhattacharya
04/01/13 - 12/31/14

This proposed work focuses on the design development of a flexible & scalable digital power management system that integrates advanced batteries and solar cells into small satellites.

This project is sponsored by University of Florida.

### Biophotonic Sleep Tracker

Alper Yusuf Bozkurt
07/01/13 - 01/31/15

A smart bandage and headband with biophotonic properties will be demonstrated to help sorting the stages of sleep and track sleep debt. The feasibility of the developed prototype will be tested on human subjects in a sleep laboratory.

This project is sponsored by Chancellor's Innovation Fund (CIF).

### CPS: Synergy: Collaborative Research: Cyborg Insect Networks for Exploration and Mapping (CINEMa)

Alper Yusuf Bozkurt, Edgar J Lobaton, Mihail L. Sichitiu
10/01/12 - 09/30/15

Autonomous navigation in unknown and dynamic environments has been a major challenge for synthetic mobile robotic agents. On the other hand, insects can easily solve such complex navigational problems and demonstrate remarkably stable and optimized locomotion skills in almost any environment. This project aims to develop a mobile sensor network where insects are used as mobile biological-robotic (biobotic) nodes. Insects, in fact, build a ?natural? sensor network through the use of their biological sensing organs and release of chemical, mechanical and optical cues to communicate the information to the rest of the group. In the scope of this project, a novel ?cyber-physical? communication network will be established among the individual insect in addition to the aforementioned natural one. For this, insects will be equipped with synthetic electronic sensors to sense additional cues, neuromuscular stimulation systems to direct the control of the insect and microcontrollers with radios to establish an RF link between the insects. This novel network will enable operation of insect biobots in complicated and uncertain dynamic environments for applications such as environmental sensing and search-and-rescue operations after natural disasters. The unique interdisciplinary nature of this project will help us to reach to younger generations and train them to be able to look at engineering problems from a cyberphysical systems point of view. Planned activities include development of lab modules and demos by undergraduate and graduate students to teach K-12 students and their teachers through our on-going collaborations with educational partners. These demos will also be instrumental during our nation level efforts to promote graduate education to underrepresented minority students.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### CPS: Synergy: Integrated Sensing and Control Algorithms for Computer-Assisted Training

David L Roberts, Alper Yusuf Bozkurt, Barbara Lynn Sherman
10/01/13 - 09/30/16

We are establishing two-way computer-mediated communication between working search and rescue dogs and their handlers. The vision is to bring novel CPS technology to bear on the problem of establishing more effective, reliable, and informative communication between dogs and humans in a variety of settings. To achieve this vision, we are developing technologies to monitor dogs' behaviors and emotions, send commands to dogs remotely, and monitor the environments the dogs are working in.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Instrument to Co-register EEG and NIRS for Accurate Sleep Sorting

Alper Yusuf Bozkurt
09/22/14 - 08/31/16

A wireless miniaturized electro-encephalography and near-infrared spectroscopy system will be developed in the form factors of an adhesive bandage. This system will be used to sort sleep stages during all night sleep of healthy human subjects. The efficacy of the system will be assessed and bench-marked with traditional clinical measurements during sleep studies.

This project is sponsored by National Institutes of Health (NIH).

### Low Power and Flexible Physiological Sensors

Alper Yusuf Bozkurt
09/01/12 - 08/31/15

The aim of this project is to provide nano-enhanced optical elements and a low power analog front-end application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) towards sub-milliwatt photoplethysmogram (PPG) and pulse oximetry to monitor key vital signs (i.e. arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate, and potentially blood pressure and respiratory rate).

This project is sponsored by NCSU Advanced Self Powered Systems of Sensors and Technologies (ASSIST) Center.

### Modular Nanoengineering for the Future of Bits and Bytes

Alper Yusuf Bozkurt
11/01/13 - 10/31/15

The purpose of this grant application is to develop a course (Nanoengineering for the Information Age) that will ingratiate freshman and sophomore students with principle of operation of electronic devices that sense to collect information, actuate to transmit information, and store and process information. The aim of the subaward is to develop hands-on course modules to be embedded as laboratory applications to various existing courses in the Electrical Engineering curriculum at NC State. In the long run, these initial efforts and experiences will help to set-up the related facilities, bring the necessary logistics together and prepare the teaching assistants to be able to offer the proposed ?Nanoengineering for the Information Age? course as an independent class at NC State.

This project is sponsored by Cornell University.

### NASA Aeronautics Scholarship Program

Gregory T. Byrd
09/15/14 - 09/14/16

NASA Research & Education Support Services scholarship for ECE student Kevin Holgado, $15,000 a year for two years; total$30,000

### A Measurement Based Framework for Dynamic Equivalencing of Large-Scale Power Systems Using Synchrophasors

Aranya Chakrabortty
09/01/10 - 10/31/15

1. To perform rigorous data analysis and information extraction from PMU data in order to implement the identi cation algorithms in real-time. The PI and his group have been provided with real PMU data from the US west coast grid by Southern California Edison, Inc., which particularly calls in for a signi cant amount of data analysis.

2. To develop a visualization software platform by which these algorithms can be presented in a visually attractive way to facilitate quick understanding of power system disturbance events by the system operators.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### CAREER: Wide-Area Control of Large Power Systems Using Distributed Synchrophasors: Where Network Theory Meets Power System Dynamics

Aranya Chakrabortty
03/01/11 - 02/29/16

This NSF-CAREER proposal strives for novel and transformative approaches to formulate, investigate and validate the almost untouched problem of wide-area damping control of large-scale electric power systems using synchronized phasor measurements. Following the US Northeast blackout of 2003, tremendous research efforts have been devoted to the visualization and postmortem analyses of Synchrophasors, leading to a formative understanding of how the Wide-area Measurement System (WAMS) technology may be used for dynamic health monitoring of complex power system networks. However, owing partly to a slowness in learning, and partly to a shortage of control system engineers in the WAMS community, no rigorous research has yet been done to transcend from monitoring to the next phase - namely, feedback control. With over 132 Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) currently operating in the US West Coast power system, and over 60 PMUs operating in the Eastern Interconnect, producing over 2 billion data samples per day, control by human operators is obviously not sustainable. An autonomous, highly distributed, bandwidth-efficient, real-time control system is needed to shape the oscillatory dynamics of these interconnections using Synchrophasor-feedback.

This project will make a step towards building such control systems, using concepts of nonlinear circuit theory, fundamental physics, and graph theory.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Collaborative Research: CPS: Synergy: Distributed Asynchronous Algorithms and Software Systems for Wide-Area Monitoring of Power Systems

Aranya Chakrabortty, Frank Mueller
10/01/13 - 09/30/16

The objective of this NSF-CPS Synergy proposal is to develop a distributed algorithmic frame- work, supported by a highly fault-tolerant software system, for executing critical transmission-level operations of the North American power grid using gigantic volumes of Synchrophasor data. As the number of Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) increases to more than thousands in the next 4-5 years, it is rather intuitive that the current state-of-the-art centralized communication and information processing architecture of Wide-Area Measurement System (WAMS) will no longer be sustainable under such data-explosion, and a completely distributed cyber-physical architecture will need to be developed. The North American Synchrophasor Initiative (NASPI) is currently address- ing this architectural aspect by developing new communication and computing protocols through NASPInet and Phasor Gateway. However, almost no attention has yet been paid to perhaps the most critical consequence of this envisioned distributed architecture - namely distributed algorithms. Our primary task, therefore, will be to develop parallel computational methods for solving real-time wide-area monitoring and control problems with analytical investigation of their stability, convergence and robustness properties, followed by their implementation and testing against extraneous malicious attacks using our WAMS-RTDS testbed at NC State.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Development of a Multi-User Network Testbed for Wide-Area Monitoring and Control of Power Systems via Synchrophasors

Aranya Chakrabortty, Mesut E. Baran, Pam Page Carpenter
06/30/13 - 06/30/15

This project will develop an integrated research and educational framework for different applications of the Wide-area Measurement System (WAMS) technology. A combined research teaching laboratory will be developed where real-time digital simulators will be integrated with Phasor Measurement Units to create a hardware-in-loop simulation testbed, and artificial PMU data will be transmitted across NC State, Duke University and UNC Chapel Hill through a dedicated fibre optic communication network. Additionally, real PMU data from Duke Energy and Southern California Edison will be used to teach graduate students how wide-area monitoring and control algorithms can be developed in real-time using the WAMS-RTDS testbed.

This project is sponsored by US Dept. of Energy (DOE).

### Distributed Data-Centric Algorithms for Next-Generation Transmission Network Management Systems

Aranya Chakrabortty, Frank Mueller
08/16/13 - 12/31/14

The objective of this ABB project is to develop a distributed algorithmic framework, supported by a highly fault-tolerant software system, for executing critical transmission-level operations of the North American power grid using gigantic volumes of Synchrophasor and SCADA data in tomorrow?s transmission network management systems. As the number of Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) as well as other Intelligent Electronic Devices (IED) increases to several thousands in the next 4-5 years, it is rather intuitive that the current state-of-the-art centralized communication and information processing architecture will no longer be sustainable under such data-explosion, and a completely distributed cyber-physical architecture will need to be developed. Our primary task, therefore, will be to develop parallel computational methods for solving real-time wide-area monitoring and control problems with analytical investigation of their stability, convergence and robustness properties, followed by their implementation and testing against extraneous malicious attacks using our WAMS-RTDS testbed at the FREEDM Systems Center at NC State.

This project is sponsored by ABB, Inc.

### SEP Collaborative: Integrating Heterogeneous Energy Resources For Sustainable Power Networks - A Systems Approach

Aranya Chakrabortty
09/15/12 - 08/31/16

This project will take a unique approach in examining how management and control of large-scale and distributed energy resources can contribute to both stabilization and improving the performance of for power systems with high penetration of renewable energy. The research will involve a system theoretic end-to-end analysis from detailed characterization of the energy sources through propagation of these inputs through the power transmission and distribution network. An important aspect of the proposed research is the ability of this interdisciplinary team to examine not only the technical and physical system challenges but to include the related regulatory, policy and market challenges that must be dealt with in order to implement any proposed power system changes.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Big Data Framework for Battery SOF and SOH Estimation

Mo-Yuen Chow
02/01/14 - 01/31/15

To collaborate with SAIT at Samsung to pioneer the application of Big Data technologies for battery applications in PHEV/ PEV and become a leader in this area.

We propose to develop an effective and robust framework to discover and analyze the factors that are important in SOF and SOH estimation of the batteries with:

a) Qualitative demonstration of the relationships between the SOF/SOH estimation parameters and the available data,

b) Quantitative evaluation of the relativeness, importance and required resolution of different unstructured data types to refine the estimation performance.

This project is sponsored by Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. - Korea.

### Center of Excellence in the Area of Human and Robotic Structures Technologies for Lunar and Planetary Exploration

Matthew K. Ronning, Mo-Yuen Chow, Harvey T. Banks, Ashok Gopalarathnam, Vinod K. Saxena, Gregory D. Buckner, Mohammad Noori, Fuh G. Yuan, Jack R. Edwards, Fred R. DeJarnette, Robert T. Nagel
10/01/02 - 09/25/17

No abstract currently available.

This project is sponsored by National Institute of Aerospace.

### Distributed Control of FREEDM System (former Distributed Grid Intelligence)

Mo-Yuen Chow
09/01/08 - 08/31/15

DGI/RSC is FREEDM’s “Operating System” providing resource management services to the IEM, IFM, and IPM and interfacing with SST. The composition of these diverse systems presents significant security challenges and vulnerabilities spanning beyond those of traditional network and cyber security. This project produces a set of security policies for FREEDM, a set of security rules to be enforced by “Security Mechanisms” or software/hardware/network protection code processes, and hardware features.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM).

### I-Corps: iSpace Technology for Novel Traffic Light Managements

Mo-Yuen Chow
04/15/13 - 09/30/14

The iSpace technology developed by Advanced Diagnosis, Automation, and Control (ADAC) Lab at the North Carolina State University (NCSU) provides a solution to meet the demands for efficiency, scalability, security and robustness in the control and management of cyber-physical industrial applications, such as transportation systems, energy management system and power grids. In this proposal, we focus on applying iSpace technology to substantially improve the traffic signal management performance in transportation systems. Such a solution will reduce traffic congestion, fuel consumption, gas emissions and driver frustration by minimizing vehicle stops and delays at intersections. Therefore, we plan to investigate and identify the potential customers and the appropriate markets and test the commercial feasibility of iSpace technology through this Innovation Corps project.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Verification of FREEDM System Control Robustness

Mo-Yuen Chow
09/01/13 - 08/31/14

Verification of FREEDM System Control Robustness

Abstract: A rigorous system level analysis on the stability, robustness and convergence of distributed control algorithms on FREEDM systems considering the interactions between the Distributed Control algorithms and the FREEDM Power Management and Control through SST

This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM).

### EARS: Intelligent and Cross-Layer Attack and Defense in Spectrum Sharing

Huaiyu Dai, Peng Ning
01/01/15 - 12/31/17

Cognitive radio (CR) is emerging as a key enabling technology to address the ever increasing

demands on the scarce spectrum for wireless communications. While wireless networks are prone to security attacks,

CR networks are even more vulnerable due to improved intelligence available at attackers or compromised devices, and additional

constraints imposed on CR users. This interdisciplinary proposal aims at making contributions in the general area of security of wireless signals and systems in the context of spectrum sharing, to facilitate the realization of the national spectrum objectives in the years to come. In this project, instead of adding contributions to existing literature on software and wireless network security, we will focus on the vulnerabilities and attacks unique to CR functionalities, and advocate a cross-layer viewpoint for both attacks and defenses.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Is Wireless Channel Dependable for Security Provisioning?

Huaiyu Dai, Rudra Dutta, Peng Ning
08/15/13 - 07/31/16

Wireless security is receiving increasing attention as wireless

systems become a key component in our daily life as well as critical cyber-physical systems. Recent progress in this area exploits physical layer characteristics to offer enhanced and sometimes the only available security mechanisms. The success of such security mechanisms depends crucially on the correct modeling of underlying wireless propagation. It is widely accepted that wireless channels decorrelate fast over space, and half a wavelength is the key distance metric used in existing wireless physical layer security mechanisms for security assurance. We believe that this channel correlation model is incorrect in general: it leads to wrong hypothesis about the inference capability of a passive adversary and results in false sense of security, which will expose the legitimate systems to severe threats with little awareness. In this project, we seek to understand the fundamental limits in passive inference of wireless channel characteristics, and further advance our knowledge and practice in wireless security.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### TC: Small: Defending against Insider Jammers in DSSS- and FH-Based Wireless Communication Systems

Mladen A. Vouk, Huaiyu Dai, Peng Ning
09/01/10 - 08/31/15

Jamming resistance is crucial for applications where reliable wireless

communication is required, such as rescue missions and military

techniques such as Frequency Hopping (FH) and Direct Sequence Spread

Spectrum (DSSS) have been used as countermeasures against jamming

attacks. However, these anti-jamming techniques require that senders

and receivers share a secret key to communicate with each

other, and thus are vulnerable to insider attacks where the

The objective of this project is to develop a suite of techniques

to defend against insider jammers in DSSS and FH based wireless

communication systems. We will develop novel and efficient

insider-jamming-resistant techniques for both DSSS- and FH-based

wireless communication systems. Our proposed research consists of two

techniques, called DSD-DSSS (which stands for DSSS based on

Delayed Seed Disclosure), to enhance DSSS-based wireless communication

to defend against insider jamming threats, while the second thrust is

to develop a new approach, called USD-FH (which stands for FH

based on Uncoordinated Seed Disclosure), to enable sender and

receivers using FH to communicate without pre-establishing any common

secret hopping pattern. A key property of our new approaches is that

they do not depend on any secret shared by the sender and receivers. Our solution

has the potential to significantly enhance the anti-jamming capability of today?s wireless communication

systems.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Toward a General Automatic Reasoning Framework for Networked Systems

Huaiyu Dai
07/01/10 - 06/30/15

This work intends to contribute to an automatic reasoning framework for networked systems through research in two areas: structured variational methods and their distributed implementation, and distributed clustering. Interaction and integration of these two components will also be explored, leading to a holistic cross-layer approach for automatic reasoning in networked systems.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Proof of Concept Study for High-Level Power Modeling Standards

William R. Davis
01/01/15 - 06/30/15

This document proposes a 6 month effort to generate a high-level power model. The power model will be based on the ARM Cortex System-on-Chip design currently used in Davis’ course ECE 720: Electronic System Level and Physical Design. The Power Model will be formatted to be compatible with Si2’s Standards for Efficient System Level Power Analysis.

This project is sponsored by Silicon Integration Initiative, Inc (Si2).

### CSR:Small: Enabling Aggressive Voltage Scaling for Real-Time and Embedded Systems with Inexpensive Yet Efficiant Power Conversion

Alexander G. Dean, Subhashish Bhattacharya
08/15/11 - 07/31/14

The goal of this project is to improve the energy efficiency of cost-sensitive embedded systems through aggressive voltage scaling. We seek to increase (at minimal cost) the number of separate voltage domains in a system and run each as efficiently as possible. Dynamic voltage and frequency scaling methods are standard on systems which can afford the additional costs to save the energy. Supporting multiple voltage domains incurs overhead such as additional voltage regulators/converters and level translators. Improving energy efficiency allows a designer to extend a systems operational life, reduce battery size and weight, and use more sophisticated (and computationally intense) control methods. Recent advances in subthreshold voltage processor design offer tremendous opportunities to reduce energy requirements for

computation. Energy-scavenging, ultracapacitor and wireless power transmission technologies are rapidly advancing, further increasing opportunities.

We plan to reduce costs by moving control into software and general-purpose hardware on common microcontrollers. A second challenge is further reducing system cost, size and weight by removing noise-filtering components. When an SMPS switches current on and off through the inductor, it generates wideband harmonic noise. We will use real-time system approaches to prevent SMPS switching activity from coinciding with noise-sensitive operations. There are additional challenges: determining practical power supply and system architectures, adapting existing methods in power-aware real-time and non-real-time scheduling to such systems, implementing this mixed-criticality system with robust software in a practical way on real hardware which partitions critical code from application code, that software becomes critical), and evaluating the trade-offs among the many design parameters.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Geometric Phase Holograms and Related Films and Devices

Michael James Escuti
05/01/14 - 04/30/19

In this five-year program, the PI and team will broadly investigate Geometric Phase Holograms (GPH), Polarization Gratings (PGs), Multi-Twist Retarders (MTRs), and devices that integrate them.

This project is sponsored by ImagineOptix Corporation.

### PECASE: Complex Polarization Gratings - Extreme Fresnel Zone Plates, Agile Vortex Beam Tools, and Enhanced Distributed-Feedback

Michael James Escuti
02/01/10 - 01/31/16

This request is to support one NCSU undergraduate student (Scott Gaffer, a rising, double-major senior) to work on research directly associated with the activities carried out by the PI under the currently funded grant.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Vector Waveplate (Q-Plate)

Michael James Escuti
09/27/13 - 12/31/14

No abstract currently available.

This project is sponsored by Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

### NeTS: Small: Distributed and Efficient Randomized Algorithms for Large Networks

Do Young Eun
08/01/12 - 07/31/16

Designing efficient and distributed algorithms has been central to almost all large networked systems. Examples include crawling-based sampling of large online social networks, statistical estimation or inference from massive scale of networked data, efficient searching algorithms in unstructured peerto-peer networks, randomized routing and duty-cycling algorithm for better performance-energy tradeoff in wireless sensor networks, and distributed scheduling algorithms leading to maximal

throughput and smaller delay in multihop wireless networks, to list a few. Except for small-sized, static networks for which centralized design is not much of an issue, virtually all large networks necessarily demand distributed algorithms for inherent lack of global information and also randomized algorithms for autonomous load balancing and their resilience/robustness against possible points of failure/attacks, yet often with close-to-optimal performance.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Advanced Silicon Circuits and Systems for Emerging Millimeter-Wave Markets

Brian Allan Floyd
11/01/11 - 10/31/14

Under this program, AKM engineers will be trained in millimeter-wave integrated circuit design as visiting scholars and then AKM and NC State will work jointly to develop advanced millimeter-wave circuits and systems using silicon integrated circuit technology.

This project is sponsored by Asahi Kasei Microdevices Corp..

### Built-in Test for Power-Efficient Millimeter-Wave Phased Arrays

Brian Allan Floyd
03/01/11 - 12/31/14

This project is sponsored by University of Texas - Dallas.

Brian Allan Floyd, Jacob James Adams, Brian L. Hughes
09/15/13 - 08/31/17

The goal of this project is use information-theoretic principles to design compact broadband multi-

antenna receivers that exhibit the best possible tradeoff between power and bandwidth efficiency.

Our overall approach is to develop antenna structures, matching networks and communication

algorithms that act in concert to maximize the capacity of the underlying wireless channel. Three

main topics are addressed: (a) design of novel, co-located antennas that seek to capture the most

informative modes of the incident electromagnetic field; (b) design of agile, adaptive broadband

antenna matching networks with the ability to optimize performance in the presence of frequency-

selective coupling and noise; (c) information-theoretic criteria to guide the design of antenna arrays

that maximize capacity of the resulting channel, and (d) communication and signal processing

algorithms that sense and adjust the matching networks to changing channel conditions.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Efficient Linearized All-Silicon Transmitter ICs (Asymetrical Multilevel Outphasing - NCSU Phase II)

Brian Allan Floyd
06/01/12 - 08/31/14

In this program, we will investigate circuit and system architectures to realize a highly-efficient millimeter-wave out-phased transmitter using 45-nm SOI CMOS technology and operating at 94 GHz.

This project is sponsored by Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

### Interferometric Imaging Using Reconfigured Millimeter-Wave Phased Arrays In Silicon (IIRIS)

Brian Allan Floyd
07/07/11 - 07/06/14

The "Interferometric imaging using Repurposed mIllimeter-wave phased arrayS (IRIS)" research program will develop techniques to enable the addition of imaging capabilities to existing defense-related communication or radar phased-array platforms. This hardware re-use approach to imaging eliminates the payload associated with a traditional millimeter-wave passive imager, which will allow for longer flight times for unmanned airborn vehicles (UAVs) while adding a valuable imaging, navigation, and surveillance capability. The repurposing of the existing phased array will be accomplished through the implementation of code-division multiplexing together with interference-pattern based imaging (interferometry). Architectural and performance trade-offs will be explored and a feasibility study will be completed. Finally, a 94-GHz phased-array circuit prototype will be designed and fabricated to demonstrate the program results.

Brian Allan Floyd
02/01/12 - 01/31/16

The available bandwidths at Ka band and V band enable gigabit-per-second communications for mobile millimeter-wave broadband networks using compact beamforming antenna arrays. In year 4 of this program, we will be building upon our previous work to realize a low-noise, power-efficient front-end at 60 GHz in SiGe BiCMOS technology with built-in test.

This project is sponsored by Samsung Research America Inc..

### STTR Phase II: Fully-Integrated Tunable Filters Employing Synthetic Linear Interference Delay

Brian Allan Floyd
04/01/14 - 03/31/16

Circuit and radio front-end architectures leading to a universal channel selection filter for the 700-3000 MHz range will be developed. The filter will employ synthetic linear interference delay which provides frequency selectivity based on the creation of an interference pattern arising from delay and phase alignment between between parallel passive and active channels. Fully-integrated filter prototypes will be designed in silicon, including a high-accuracy phase shifter, a limiting amplifier, and low-noise tunable bandpass or notch elements.

This project is sponsored by Physical Devices LLC.

### 3D X86 Heterogeneous Core Stack

Paul D. Franzon, William R. Davis, Eric Rotenberg
11/12/12 - 12/31/14

Design and build 3D X86 Heterogeneous Core Stack

This project is sponsored by Intel Corporation.

### 3D-Enabled Customizable Embedded Computer

Paul D. Franzon, Eric Rotenberg, William R. Davis, James Tuck, Huiyang Zhou, Steven Lipa
09/19/12 - 02/14/18

The proposed effort will investigate new approaches to building ultra low power computers.

### Binary MultiMode Interconnect for High Density Chip to Chip Communications

Paul D. Franzon
07/01/11 - 12/31/14

We will investigate advanced schemes to reduce chip to chip crosstalk and thus permits denser systems to be built

This project is sponsored by Semiconductor Research Corporation.

### CSR: Medium: Computing via Monolithic Three Dimensional Assembly of Novel Floating Gate Transistors and Thin Film Semiconductors

Paul D. Franzon, Veena Misra, Neil DiSpigna, Eric Rotenberg, John F. Muth
08/01/11 - 07/31/15

Work will be conducted on a new unified memory device.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Faster than Real Time Simulation of Electromechanical Process of Large Scale Electrical Power Grids

Paul D. Franzon, Aranya Chakrabortty
12/15/14 - 12/14/15

In this project, faster than real time methods to simulate electrical grids will be investigated.

This project is sponsored by ABB, Inc.

### Hardware Acceleration of Sparse Cognitive Algorithms

Paul D. Franzon
12/01/14 - 06/15/16

NCSU will conduct an ESL study to determine the scalability of hardware accelerators for cortical processors. Several new communications management schemes will be implemented

This project is sponsored by US Air Force (USAF).

### Leveraging Commercial Flows for Heterogeneous Integration

Paul D. Franzon, William R. Davis, Michael B. Steer, Brian Allan Floyd
05/06/13 - 05/05/16

NCSU, Sandia and Mentor Graphics Inc. will develop thermal and stress management flows for heterogeneous 3DIC.

This project is sponsored by US Army - Research, Development and Engineering Command (RDECOM).

### Modular, Testable, Tightly Coupled 3D Implementation of a Heterogenous Processor

Paul D. Franzon, William R. Davis, Eric Rotenberg
07/01/11 - 08/31/16

Implement a 3D Intel compatible processor

This project is sponsored by Intel Corporation.

### SHF:Small:AC Powered Digital Circuits

Paul D. Franzon
08/01/14 - 07/31/17

The main goal of this project is to reduce the cost of RFID chips by eliminating most of the circuitry needed for managing the recovered power on the chip. This has potential to reduce the chip cost by about one-third. RFID chips are at the core of the tags stores typically attach to clothing and high end items – though they have a lot more uses beside this. The main technique employed in this project is to directly operating the circuits from the recovered wireless power. A new chip design technique has been identified for doing this and will be exploited and further explored in the project. This technique also has potential to increase the range at which the RFID tag can be powered. A successful outcome will open new market opportunities to use RFID.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Packaging Development for PSD Testing and Optimized Inverter Configurations

Douglas C Hopkins
09/01/13 - 08/31/15

Primary goals are to demonstrate a high-efficiency integrated power stage for a 3-phase SST, explore advanced packaging techniques using additive manufacturing, and develop full-power testing capability for PSD SiC and GaN devices

This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM).

### Distributed Energy Storage Devices (DESD)

Srdjan Miodrag Lukic, Alex Q. Huang, Mo-Yuen Chow
09/01/13 - 08/31/15

The objective of the DESD Subthrust is to develop intelligent, modular, reliable, efficient, high power and energy density plug-and-play DESD to support the FREEDM and traditional grid energy storage applications

This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM).

### CIF:Small:From Fano to Shannon: Information Theory and Broadband Matching

Brian L. Hughes
09/01/10 - 12/31/14

In recent years, multi-element antenna arrays have assumed an increasingly central role in the design of wireless communication systems. Recent results on multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems have shown that deploying multi-element arrays at both the transmitter and receiver can dramatically improve the capacity of wireless channels in the presence of rich multipath. Since the capacity of MIMO systems increases with the number of transmit and receive elements, it is desirable to use as many elements as possible. However, since the physical size of the transmitter and receiver are often limited, increasing the number of elements often requires closer inter-element spacing and inevitably leads to correlation and mutual coupling. Coupling can profoundly impact the received power, available diversity and overall system capacity. Moreover, this impact depends not only on the kind of antennas used and the way they are arranged in space; it also depends in an essential way on key aspects of the wireless transceiver, such as the antenna matching network and the dominant sources of noise.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Collaborative Research: Direct-drive Modular Transverse Flux Electric Machine without Using Rare-Earth Permanent Magnet Material

Iqbal Husain, Srdjan Miodrag Lukic
09/01/13 - 08/31/16

The objective of the proposed research is to develop compact, high torque density, energy-efficient, rare-earth-material-free electric machines for alternative energy and transportation applications using the concept of transverse flux (TF) paths. The unconventional ?ring? winding producing the homopolar MMF distribution in the airgap used in TF machines allows the increase of pole numbers without the reduction of ampere-turn per pole. This effective increase in current loading makes these machines highly suitable for high-torque, low-speed direct-drive applications. Design innovations in both machine concept and control algorithms distinguish the proposed permanent magnet (PM)-TF structure from those previously developed. The proposed concept has the potential to dramatically increase the torque and power density of electric machines without using rare-earth magnet materials whose cost has increased dramatically over the past five years due to highly limited availability.

The goals of this research will be achieved through the following steps: (1) Analyse the electromagnetic, structural and thermal behaviour of the proposed concept; (2) establish analysis, design and control optimization principles for PM-TF machines; (3) design and develop motor controller; (4) fabricate 50kW (peak) prototype; (5) test and analyse performance on an electric powertrain dynamometer; and (6) disseminate results through research publications. A Researcher from National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has agreed to advise the team and provide technical assistance during the course of this research program. An automotive electric drive manufacturer, US Hybrid, has agreed to provide engineering guidance during the design stage and to help fabricate the prototype.

The research efforts will be supplemented by a comprehensive educational plan built around this proposal. Three lecture/laboratory modules on alternative energy and transportation each to cover five weeks of a 3 credit course will be developed at NC State and University of Akron, and also disseminated to other Universities. Several graduate and undergraduate students will be trained through this project.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Development of a Low Cost, Residential Plug and Play PV System

Alex Q. Huang, Subhashish Bhattacharya, Chih Tsai, David Lee Lubkeman, Thomas Cleveland, Stephen S. Kalland, Iqbal Husain
02/01/13 - 03/31/18

This project is a comprehensive, systemic effort to reduce the installed cost of Solar PV. The project will address all aspects of PV technology through analysis, design, refinement and invention while taking a broader systems perspective encompassing aspects of the supply chain, standards, and regulations. We will build standard component and system designs, and delivery systems that will require little or no custom engineering, can be installed and connected to the grid efficiently, and will meet refined and simplified building and electrical codes. The goal is to drive non-panel costs to below the $0.96 / Watt 2020 Sun Shot target for a total cost below$1.50 per Watt.

This project is sponsored by US Dept. of Energy (DOE).

### ERC for Future Renewable Electric Energy Distribution and Management (FREEDM) Systems

Iqbal Husain, Ewan Gareth David Pritchard, Srdjan Miodrag Lukic, Wenye Wang, Mesut E. Baran, Mo-Yuen Chow, Penny Shumaker Jeffrey, Mark A. Johnson, Alex Q. Huang, Edward A. Baker
09/01/08 - 08/31/18

The FREEDM system vision is a vision for an Energy Internet. The Energy Internet requires that society move away from, or at least supplement, the traditional centralized generation, distribution, and consumption business model to one where every user can actively participate in the energy market. User participation is a major factor that has resulted in exponentially increasing innovation and ingenuity in the information technology sector. If the ?Information Internet? was the engine that powered our country?s economic growth in the last thirty years, then a similar and even more powerful Energy Internet will accomplish even more in the next several decades.

The majority of the U.S. power grid was built in the early 1930s. This aging and overburdened power grid infrastructure is under tremendous pressure to deliver the rising demand of domestic electricity consumption. At present, the majority of U.S. electricity generation still heavily relies on environmentally costly fossil fuel. The wide adoption of centralized renewable energy generation is still a huge challenge because of the high cost of expanding and maintaining the transmission system. Driven by environmental and economic incentives, there is an urgent need to develop a new residential distribution infrastructure (Energy Internet) for plug-and-play of a large number of distributed renewable energy generation/storage and dispatch able load.

The FREEDM System vision of an Energy Internet is inspired by the paradigm shift in the computer industry in early 1980s. The centralized computer mainframes gave way to a distributed computing infrastructure which allows individual users to access via a worldwide internet. In a similar paradigm shift, highly distributed and scalable renewable energy resources must play a primary role, which the centralized bulk power plants are currently serving. While legacy power system operations are solely driven by least-cost and reliability concerns, the Energy Internet innovations are completely reshaping the traditional views of our power generation, distribution, and consumption, social environment and business world. This innovative paradigm shift can only be achieved by encouraging the high participation of residential customers with new business models, in which the centralized, monopolistic energy market has to give way to heterogeneous, decentralized business structures. Figure 1 shows the envisioned Energy Internet business and market framework, put forward by the FREEDM Systems Center in Year 5. In this Energy Internet market, individual residential customers or a group of entities organized as an Energy Cell is not only the electricity consumers but can also be the electricity suppliers with their own unique preferences, environmental impact, and business strategies. The utility company, another Energy Cell, no longer owns power plants exclusively nor do they profit by only selling energy, more emphasis is placed on their role as a service provider for the energy transactions among and between the Energy Cells. Transactions in the new energy market take place in a manner similar to how today?s stock market operates. The Energy Internet allows those new participants to fully engage with a dynamic and diverse energy market through a distributed decision making process.

To realize the vision of the above Energy Internet, the underlying power delivery and management system (distribution infrastructure) must change significantly from today?s system. The new grid must support large amounts of plug-and-play activity (some of these are a result of the Energy Cell?s market and business decisions) in a high distributed generation penetration scenario. The FREEDM System, under the development by the FREEDM System ERC, is such a revolutionary and resilient power grid suitable for this purpose. Figure 1-2 shows the FREEDM system architecture and the major smart components. The new system has to deliver the following four salient features: 1) Plug-and-play (PnP) capability of distributed renewable energy resources, distributed ener

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

Iqbal Husain, Ewan Gareth David Pritchard, Alex Q. Huang, Robert Seth Crossno II
07/01/09 - 06/30/15

This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM).

Iqbal Husain, John F. Muth
12/01/14 - 01/31/16

This project is sponsored by NCSU PowerAmerica: Next Generation Electronics Manufacturing Innovation Institute.

### Scalable, Low-Cost, High-Performance Non-Rare Earth PM Motor for Hybrid Vehicles

Iqbal Husain
04/20/12 - 01/15/16

The project will evaluate and design a non-rare earth electric machine concept for electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The machine will use a standard traction inverter commonly used in traction applications. The design is based on an alternative configuration of swicthed reluctance machines that can use the standard inverter topology. A prototype machine will be designed and built based on DOE specifications, and tested on an electric dynamometer for validation of results.

This project is sponsored by GE Global Research.

### SMC - Dynamic Modeling of FREEDM Layers with Distributed IPM control

Iqbal Husain, Alex Q. Huang, Aranya Chakrabortty, Veena Misra, Mark A. Johnson, Douglas C Hopkins, B. Jayant Baliga
09/01/09 - 08/31/15

The objective is to develop a comprehensive FREEDM system level model for system performance analysis, and controller design and evaluation to address one of the most critical concerns of the NSF SVT. A distributed or autonomous robust Intelligent Power Management (IPM) Control development is a key component of the controls initiative in Year 7.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM).

### Switched Reluctance Machine and Controller Development for Electric Power Steering

Iqbal Husain
09/01/11 - 12/31/15

The objective of the project is to experimentally evaluate the three-phase switched reluctance machine (SRM) drive that has been developed and built for electric power steering (EPS) and then design the next generation machine.

This project is sponsored by Nexteer Automotive.

### NSA / North Carolina State University Science of Security Lablet: Analytics Supporting Security Science

Dennis H. Kekas, Peng Ning, Mladen A. Vouk, Rudra Dutta, Laurie A. Williams, Mihail L. Sichitiu, Michael A. Rappa, John C. Bass
04/03/08 - 11/30/14

North Carolina State University (NCSU), led by the Department of Computer Science and the Institute of Advanced Analytics in conjunction with the Institute for Next Generation IT Systems (ITng), will create and manage a Science of Security Lablet (SOSL) research organization on behalf of the National Security Agency (NSA). The SOSL research organization will conduct and coordinate basic science research projects focused on the Science of Security. SOSL will coordinate with related Lablet activities sponsored by NSA at Carnegie Mellon University and at University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign (UIUC). SOSL will also coordinate with the Security Science Virtual Organization at Vanderbilt University. The coordination will be in the form of workshops and technical exchanges.

This project is sponsored by US Army - Army Research Office.

### Function Accelerated nanoMaterial Engineering (FAME)

Ki Wook Kim
01/15/13 - 10/31/17

As a part of the UCLA led team, we will investigate two emerging physical systems/mechanisms capable of highly functional information processing beyond the current state of the art. The first task explores electronic properties of van der Waals materials and their heterostructures. Of primary interest is a system utilizing atomically thin tunnel structures and engineered density-of-states mismatch for ultra-high-speed operation in the terahertz frequencies and strong nonlinearity. The second exploits the possibility of inducing and controlling strongly correlated interactions between electronic and magnetic systems. Specifically, a layered structure consisting of non-metallic magnetic materials and low-dimensional semiconductors with large surface area, such as the van der Waals crystals, is the focus of investigation. The key concept utilizes the correlation between two materials through interactions at the interface, enabling modulation of one property through the other. Detailed theoretical analyses coupled with numerical modeling will be conducted to demonstrate the underlying physical concepts. Relevant metrics will be estimated to gauge the performance in realistic applications.

This project is sponsored by University of California - Los Angeles.

### Modeling of Thermoelectrics

Ki Wook Kim
09/01/12 - 08/31/15

During the coming year, we propose to continue with two complimentary objectives, one long-term and the other more near-term, in the pursuit of high efficiency thermoelectric (TE) materials and devices. In the long term, the effort will be focused on achieving comprehensive understanding of fundamental electrical and thermal transport properties of lead chalcogenide and bismuth chalcogenide heterostructures through application of a multiscale modeling approach. Along with the effort on the active element of the system (i.e., TE materials and structures), our theoretical investigation will also be extended to the interfaces between the device and substrate (body) as well as at the other end of the TE unit (heat sink; ambient). One issue that will be studied as a part of our near-term objectives is the choice of metallic material to reduce the thermal contact resistance.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Advanced Self Powered Systems of Sensors and Technologies (ASSIST) Center.

### South West Academy of Nanoelectronics (SWAN) 2.0: Charge/Spin Transport and Thermal Management in 2D Crystal Nanostructure Devices

Ki Wook Kim
04/01/13 - 12/31/17

As a member of SWAN (South West Academy of Nanoelectronics) 2.0 led by the Univ. of Texas at Austin, we propose to pursue two tasks in the development of next-generation low-power devices based on emerging 2D material systems including the topological insulators. In the first task, we will theoretically analyze carrier-phonon interaction dynamics and transport of excess heat/phonons in 2D materials and devices. In particular, a first-principles formalism based on density functional theory will be used to establish the intrinsic electron-phonon scattering rates in such candidate materials as transition metal dichalcogenides, silicene, germanene, and bismuth selenide, elucidating the extent of energy exchange in the surface states. At the same time, heat transfer across the layered 2D crystal heterostructures will be examined by using an atomistic thermal/phonon transport model. The second task will entail design and modeling of low-power high-functional logic devices that utilize the spin-momentum interlocked nature of carrier transport in the TI surface states. Particularly, the magnetoelectric effects caused by the neighboring magnetic layers will be the focus of investigation as the key device-enable feature in the topological insulator/magnet structures. Specific device concepts under consideration include magnetoelectric FETs and quasi-optic switches.

This project is sponsored by University of Texas - Austin.

### Topological Insulator Hybrid Structures for Novel Optoelectronic Applications

Ki Wook Kim, Jagdish Narayan
08/15/13 - 07/31/16

The objective of this program is to exploit unique advantages of topological insulator based structures for optoelectronic applications. Specifically, the strong magnetoelectric interaction at the topological insulator-magnetic material interface and subsequent band engineering is the key focus as they can facilitate tailored response to an optical signal, offering an ideal environment for previously unattainable performances such as extreme sensitivity detection. The combined theoretical and experimental effort aims to achieve synthesis, fabrication, and analysis of novel topological insulator materials and layered heterostructures as well as demonstration of superior device functionalities.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Topological Insulators for Novel Device Applications

Ki Wook Kim
08/05/13 - 08/04/16

This research program proposes to theoretically exploit the unique characteristics of topological insulator based structures for highly functional devices at room temperature. Utilizing the spin-momentum interlocked nature originating from strong spin-orbit coupling, the key focus is to achieve electrical control of both degrees of freedom that would provide an ideal environment to integrate electronics and magnetics into one nanoscale system. A number of innovative new concepts are put forth by judiciously employing hybrid structures formed with magnetic materials. Specific applications are pursued in three different areas ? multifunctional charge/spin current modulation, nonvolatile magnetic switching, and high sensitivity THz/far infrared detection. The investigation will encompass both the fundamental properties of topological insulators and the device modeling. In particular, first principles calculations will be employed for detailed understanding of the surface states and their interactions with the intrinsic and extrinsic sources. The basic operating principles of the envisioned devices will be analyzed with the development of physical models. Numerical modeling will follow to establish concrete designs as well as realistic estimates of performance specifications. If completed successfully, the proposed research can have significant potential impacts on room-temperature multi-functional spintronics, integration of magnetism with nanoelectronics, far infrared sensing technologies, etc.

This project is sponsored by US Army - Army Research Office.

### A Computational Vision Approach to Insect Activity Analysis (previous title: A Computational Vision Approach to Insect Activity Analysis Hamid Krim and Itta Bluhn-Chertudi)

Hamid Krim
07/01/14 - 06/30/16

Insect vector-borne diseases affect more than one billion people worldwide. Vector control is one of the most effective means of preventing transmission of these diseases. No new classes of vector control have been developed in decades. Emergence of insecticide resistance to most chemical classes has been observed in diverse pest species and this has become a very serious concern worldwide. Thus, the development of insecticides with novel modes of action (MOA) is of utmost importance in controlling vector borne diseases. A key component for identifying new MOA is the ability to reliably test large collections of compounds for the desired effects again insects and/or destructive behaviors. At the moment in the research and development of insecticides, the rate limiting step to the discovery of new MOA against insects is the efficacy of biological assays and not the chemistry lead optimization process. We propose to build a high throughput screening platform to assess a large number of compounds for toxic, repellent and behavior altering effects that are not evaluated in current standard high throughput biological screening systems. Despite technological advances, no highly efficient insect population tracking system is available on the market that allows capture of their activity in order to characterize many of the chemical effects. We propose to design a platform which will enable us to efficiently and rapidly explore compound collections to unveil their full pest-management potential without the need to pre-filter compounds using other assays.

This project is sponsored by NC Biotechnology Center.

### A Computational Vision Approach to Insect Activity Analysis for Drug Assessment (previous title: A Computational Vision Approach to Insect Activity Analysis Hamid Krim and Itta Bluhn-Chertudi)

Hamid Krim
07/01/14 - 06/30/16

Insect vector-borne diseases affect more than one billion people worldwide. Vector control is one of the most effective means of preventing transmission of these diseases. No new classes of vector control have been developed in decades. Emergence of insecticide resistance to most chemical classes has been observed in diverse pest species and this has become a very serious concern worldwide. Thus, the development of insecticides with novel modes of action (MOA) is of utmost importance in controlling vector borne diseases. A key component for identifying new MOA is the ability to reliably test large collections of compounds for the desired effects again insects and/or destructive behaviors. At the moment in the research and development of insecticides, the rate limiting step to the discovery of new MOA against insects is the efficacy of biological assays and not the chemistry lead optimization process. We propose to build a high throughput screening platform to assess a large number of compounds for toxic, repellent and behavior altering effects that are not evaluated in current standard high throughput biological screening systems. Despite technological advances, no highly efficient insect population tracking system is available on the market that allows capture of their activity in order to characterize many of the chemical effects. We propose to design a platform which will enable us to efficiently and rapidly explore compound collections to unveil their full pest-management potential without the need to pre-filter compounds using other assays.

This project is sponsored by SCYNEXIS, Inc.

### CIF:Small:Complex Networks: A Unifying Topological View

Hamid Krim
08/01/12 - 07/31/14

To address the challenges of emerging problems in complex networks (e.g. hub discovery, time varying topology, information ow and ow management), we propose a more e ffective, efficient and potentially comprehensive approach by invoking the intrinsic topology of the

network/data. The essence of this approach is that the intrinsic structure of the underlying data, along with all its implied information, will contribute to constructing an analysis framework where topological invariants are sought to serve as a basis for (albeit coarsely) parsing and distilling data.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Consortium for Nonproliferation Enabling Capabilities

Robin P. Gardner, John Mattingly, Yousry Y. Azmy, Hamid Krim, Nagiza F. Samatova, Alyson Gabbard Wilson, Ralph C. Smith, William A. Boettcher
07/31/14 - 07/30/19

NC State University, in partnership with University of Michigan, Purdue University, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Kansas State University, Georgia Institute of Technology, NC A&T State University, Los Alamos National Lab, Oak Ridge National Lab, and Pacific Northwest National lab, proposes to establish a Consortium for Nonproliferation Enabling Capabilities (CNEC). The vision of CNEC is to be a pre-eminent research and education hub dedicated to the development of enabling technologies and technical talent for meeting the grand challenges of nuclear nonproliferation in the next decade. CNEC research activities are divided into four thrust areas: 1) Signatures and Observables (S&O); 2) Simulation, Analysis, and Modeling (SAM); 3) Multi-source Data Fusion and Analytic Techniques (DFAT); and 4) Replacements for Potentially Dangerous Industrial and Medical Radiological Sources (RDRS). The goals are: 1) Identify and directly exploit signatures and observables (S&O) associated with special nuclear material (SNM) production, storage, and movement; 2) Develop simulation, analysis, and modeling (SAM) methods to identify and characterize SNM and facilities processing SNM; 3) Apply multi-source data fusion and analytic techniques to detect nuclear proliferation activities; and 4) Develop viable replacements for potentially dangerous existing industrial and medical radiological sources. In addition to research and development activities, CNEC will implement educational activities with the goal to develop a pool of future nuclear non-proliferation and other nuclear security professionals and researchers.

This project is sponsored by US Dept. of Energy (DOE).

### DO 2 Task 3.5 - Krim

Hamid Krim
09/13/13 - 12/31/14

This project is sponsored by Laboratory for Analytic Sciences.

### DO 2 Task 3.6 - Krim

Hamid Krim
09/13/13 - 12/31/14

This project is sponsored by Laboratory for Analytic Sciences.

### Fusion and Modeling Algorithums (FUMA)

Hamid Krim
03/23/15 - 03/22/18

This work addresses a problem of space debris detection, and target parameters estimation from both optical and radar data. It aims at:

- A network-based experimental design to make measurement of existing debris

- Exploiting two or more sensing modalities, and fusing information of at least Optical and Radar measurements potentially made at geographically distinct locations, and enhancing the data for analysis

- Developing a Bayesian inference framework to overcome the diversity of tracks and targets

- The optical data will be captured by a 60 cm telescope which is at disposal to CTU Prague team. The radar measurements will be obtained from a Czech amateur radio astronomy network. The optical and radar measurement will be synchronized, i.e. the same orbiting object will be seen simultaneously in both sensor modalities.

This project is sponsored by US Missile Defense Agency.

### Harness to Infer: A Case for Sensor Fusion

Hamid Krim
09/01/12 - 08/31/15

In data analysis, the amount of collected time series data over a period of time, and their variety can be staggering, i.e., sequence of observations via different sensor modalities. In addition to the importance of statistical correlations among the data, the extraction of causality has also been widely recognized as crucial. This causality information, which currently lies at the center of research and exploitation in health monitoring, may indeed be used both as a learning tool in trying to understand a patient’s health pattern and behavior, as well as a preventive/predictive tool advising a patient of changing environmental conditions, and thereby of taking a cautionary measure. Correlation of multiple streams of data, or also often referred to as information fusion, including physiological signals and environmental data will constitute the cornerstone for exploiting the ASSIST-­‐planned sensors, and will particularly greatly benefit of the results we have thus far obtained in very efficiently and robustly analyzing “wheeze” data, and some ECG data. In particular, as the environment sensing device measurements as well as other vital health data become available and the experiments get underway, the wealth of information will only be limited by one’s imagination, and one’s ability to coherently integrate it. This is clearly, an expedient way of distinguishing and of recognizing hazardous environmental conditions, with a full accounting of vital signs all available for inference and potential transmission.

In this year’s effort, we will adapt our developed highly efficient and robust analysis framework to possibly other physiological signal biomarkers from sweat, PPG, hydration level and body temperature (possible collaboration with Microsoft through student intern for data). We will particularly focus on signal artifact mitigation and sensor information fusion (stream correlation). This work will constitute the first step to a test bed deployment, and to potentially closer collaboration for full technology

transfer to hardware development.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Advanced Self Powered Systems of Sensors and Technologies (ASSIST) Center.

### Interdisciplinary Distinguished Seminar Series

Hamid Krim
08/19/14 - 08/18/16

This project is sponsored by US Army - Army Research Office.

### LAS DO3 Task Order 2.6 Future States - H. Krim

Hamid Krim
03/31/14 - 05/15/15

This project is sponsored by Laboratory for Analytic Sciences.

Hamid Krim
03/31/14 - 05/15/15

This project is sponsored by Laboratory for Analytic Sciences.

### LAS DO5 Krim Task 5.6 Collaboration

Hamid Krim
03/24/15 - 12/31/15

This seminar is to engage the academic/industry/government research community and that throughout the world to share and disseminate their state of the art findings and discoveries to the University Community, the Triangle and the State region, as well the world through eventual online viewing of these seminars.

Guests' expenses will be partially covered by this grant and a token honorarium will be disbursed. This is to be used is complementary to an existing grant from ARO which also partially covers these expenses.

This project is sponsored by Laboratory for Analytic Sciences.

### Minimax Compressed Sensing Reconstruction

Hamid Krim, Dror Zeev Baron
10/02/12 - 11/19/15

Compressed sensing is an emerging area where signal acquisition and reconstruction is possible for sparse and structured signals from a reduced number of measurements. The majority of compressed sensing research has focused on algorithms that are optimized to minimize the energy in the reconstruction error. We will instead focus on algorithms that can target a reconstruction that is optimized for any reconstruction metric, and in particular a minimax approach that minimizes the largest component-wise error.

This project is sponsored by US Army - Army Research Office.

### MUlti-MOdality Image REconstruction (MUMOIRE)

Hamid Krim
03/17/11 - 09/30/14

The Missile Defense Agency is pursuing collaborative applied technology development activities with selected organizations in the Czech Republic. The projects are unclassified. They are designed to demonstrate and enhance relationships by developing technologies that are of interest to MDA. The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) funded phase 1 of a project that was conducted in partnership with the Czech Technical University (CTU) in Prague. The U.S. University was our prime contractor. A substantial portion of the effort was conducted by CTU since we were interested in their unique image reconstruction techniques. In very broad terms, our interest in MDA is in combining the images from several sensors with angular diversity into a coherent picture. While we will eventually apply the algorithms that do this to the missile defense problem (discrimination, pattern matching, etc), we are developing an approach based on the more basic techniques that the Czechs have developed in relation to more simple problems. This SOW is for a follow-on effort that would take advantage of progress made in the first year and include the continuation of basic algorithm research and process development for stereoscopic image analysis. The prime contractor is a U.S. educational institute, whose goals and purpose are more aligned to the CTU. The task will incorporate multimodal EO/IR and SAR (if available) sensor data to enhance 3D reconstruction with a focused effort on reconstructing partially obscured images using a target?s or sensor?s motion.

This project is sponsored by US Missile Defense Agency.

### A New Detector for Measuring Polarized Light: Modeling, Characterization and Testing for Significantly Improved Imaging Capabilities (Intrinsic Coincident Polymer Semiconductor Based Polarimeter)

Michael Kudenov, Brendan Timothy O'Connor
07/15/14 - 06/30/17

The students will each have independent research projects that are closely connected with the

project objectives, and will work closely along side the PIs and graduate student researchers.

Each project is briefly described below.

Project 1. Developing an organic polarimeter that will employ polymer-polymer heterojunctions

In the proposed research project, individual organic photodetectors, with polarized light

sensitivity, are being fabricated and characterized. Critical to the polarized light sensitivity is

alignment of the active conjugated polymer in the film. Currently the focus is on polymerfullerene

heterojunction structure where the polymer is the electron donor and fullerene is the

electron acceptor. To date, we have found this to be a highly effective design. However, we are

interested in replacing the fullerene with a second polymer. This will allow for increased

capabilities including broadened polarized light spectral sensitivity. This student will look to

make a polarized organic photodetector using two polymers with complimentary donor and

acceptor nature and spectral sensitivity – P3HT, and P(NDI2OD-T2).

Project 2. Developing patterning methods to achieve an organic photodetector pixel array.

A goal of the proposed research is to increase the pixel array resolution of a polarimeter

replacing the common division of focal plane array that stacks single polarized detectors laterally

resulting in a 4-detector super-pixel with one pixel with monolithically stacked detectors

(coincident detection). To demonstrate imaging capabilities, there is a need to develop additive

printing methods of the polarized light sensitive elements. This will require new transfer printing

methods. The REU student will focus on developing the capabilities of patterning the intrinsic

coincident detectors for imaging.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### BRAIN EAGER: Panoramic, Dynamic, Multi-Region Two-Photon Microscopy for Systems Neuroscience

Michael Kudenov
09/01/14 - 08/31/15

The goal of this project is to expand the field of view of a two-photon microscope. To this end, the proposed work involves creating a wide field objective and relay lenses the can accommodate a wide field of view.

This project is sponsored by UNC - UNC Chapel Hill.

### Detection of Liquid Contaminants on Surfaces Using Hyperspectral Imaging (SBIR Phase II)(previous title: SENTRY LWIR Cold Sky Hyperspectral Imager for Liquid Contaminant Detection)

Michael Kudenov
04/28/14 - 12/24/15

Detection of chemical and biological substances at increasingly lower concentrations is of great concern for military vehicles driving through hostile areas. An ability to detect these contaminants, in liquid form on surfaces, would increase safety and capabilities for our soldiers. To this end, the project proposes to design and optimize a hyperspectral imaging sensor to detect these chemicals. The sensor will ideally operate in the long-wave infrared (8-12 micron) wavelength band. Furthermore, it will utilize cold sky reflectance to enhance the chemical's signature, which will likely be at the same temperature as the background.

This project is sponsored by SA Photonics.

### Evaluation and Validation of New Sensor Technologies for Rapid Plant Phenotyping

Gary A. Payne, Rebecca S. Boston, Jeffrey G. White, Gail G. Wilkerson, Michael Kudenov, Ronnie W. Heiniger
04/15/14 - 07/01/15

Research outlined in this proposal seeks to test new sensor technologies to more quickly and reliably identify genotypes with enhanced yield potential and establish baselines for next generation remote sensing. These studies will be conducted at the Cunningham Research Station at Kinston, NC. Extensive plant and soil measurements will be taken throughout the season in plots for which sensor readings are made. These measurements include growth analysis data, leaf N levels, light use efficiency (LUE), canopy architecture, leaf area, crop growth rate, timing of important phenological events, and photosynthetic performance; as well as differences in response to water stress. To assist in interpretation of the plant data collected in this study, soil chemical, nutrient, and hydrologic data will be collected from a subset of plots.

This project is sponsored by Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc..

### Field Deployable VNIR Linear Imaging Spectropolarimeter

Michael Kudenov
12/11/14 - 07/31/15

The objective of this proposal is to create a ruggedized imaging spectropolarimeter that can be used to measure the polarized spectral reflectance of objects in a remote sensing capacity. This device will be based on a currently existing hyperspectral imaging system that leverages off-the-shelf components to create a durable and easily fieldable sensor.

This project is sponsored by Sandia National Laboratories.

### HyperFlash Active HSI Transceiver

Michael Kudenov
06/01/14 - 03/03/15

Hyperspectral imaging technology is useful in many target identification and detection scenarios. However, most systems are limited to daytime use or use when the scene or target is illuminated by the sun. Exceptions include thermal hyperspectral imaging cameras; however, since they detect primarily emitted and not reflected signatures, spatial contrast can be diminished. Thus, the goal of this project is to create a hyperspectral imaging receiver for use with an active illumination source.

This project is sponsored by SA Photonics.

### In Situ, Real-Time Monitoring of the Properties of Engine Part Coatings

Michael Kudenov
01/04/14 - 02/29/16

Thermal barrier coatings are used in all commercial and military jet engines to provide a buffer between the hot gasses in the engine and the metal framework. Currently, depositing reliable coatings relies on feedback that is assessed using destructive and inferred methods. However, a non-contact non-destructive method to measure a coating will vastly increase the coating's reliability. Therefore, an in-situ real time monitoring technique will provide direct feedback to ceramic coating processes, and will ultimately allow jet engines to perform more efficiently. The work proposed in this project is for the development of a non-contact optical sensor to measure thickness of thermal barrier coating deposition processes.

This project is sponsored by Control Vision, Inc..

### Modular Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer for Research on Remote Sensing and Improved Situational Awareness

Michael Kudenov, Michael James Escuti, John F. Muth, Pamela Gilchrist
09/01/13 - 08/31/14

This project is sponsored by US Navy-Office Of Naval Research.

### Multi-scale Interrogation, Location, and Characterization of Defects Using Electro-Optic Techniques (Phase I) (previous title: Real-Time Imaging Polarimetry for High Throughput Defect Localization)

Michael Kudenov
12/15/14 - 09/14/15

High throughput quality control measurement methods are of critical importance for many fields, including agriculture, automobile manufacture, and the liquid crystal display industry. For instance, spectral imaging can quantify chemical identification and localization of compounds on surfaces. Meanwhile, polarimetric imaging can be used to quantify structural aspects of a surface, such as surface homogeneity related to roughness or intrinsic stress. The technology involved with this commercialization effort is focused on high-speed spectrally-resolved polarimetric imaging as applied to defect detection on exterior aircraft coatings. It is expected that defects, such as increased surface oxidization, cracking, or variations in surface roughness, can be attributed to quantifiable and repeatable changes in the spectropolarimetric reflectance of the surface. With the proposed technique, high speed automated detection of such defects can be spatially localized and relayed to technicians for repair, reducing costs and increasing the lifetime of aircraft parts and surfaces.

This project is sponsored by Control Vision, Inc..

### Passive Snapshot Remote Imaging of Object Velocity

Michael Kudenov, Michael James Escuti
09/15/14 - 09/14/17

This proposal's central hypothesis is that naturally occurring narrow-band solar absorption features can be used to accurately and passively gauge the velocity, of hard-bodied exoatmospheric and terrestrial objects, with a single frame of data. A principle approach to testing this hypothesis will be to leverage novel heterodyning optical imaging techniques. To this end, the objectives of this proposal are to (1) identify optimal passive signatures to exploit for velocity sensing; (2) create optical and radiometric models for a new sensing architecture; (3) using the models, create an optical and mechanical design and investigate the design's tradespace; (4) fabricate a proof of concept; and (5) leverage the hardware to validate the hypothesis and modeling efforts. Impact is expected on multiple areas of the Air Force's goals, including covert estimation of an object's trajectory. Additional benefits can be realized in other areas as well, including classifying threats by velocity class and remote sensing of daytime fluorescence for chemical identification.

This project is sponsored by US Air Force - Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR).

### Passive Standoff Super Resolution Imaging using Spatial-Spectral Multiplexing

Michael Kudenov
05/15/14 - 05/14/17

Optical imaging is fundamental and beneficial to many fields of research and science. It can provide non-contact quantification of objects or targets for diagnostic purposes, enable the observation of microscopic objects and organisms, and enable remote non-contact detection and sensing. However, imaging has always been limited in terms of spatial resolution. While many super resolution techniques exist to avoid this limitation, they require scanning near the object of interest or they require a priori knowledge of the target. This proposal addresses the development of a super resolution technique capable of standoff remote sensing.

This project is sponsored by US Navy-Office Of Naval Research.

### Snapshot Imaging Spatial Heterodyne Interferometer (Phase II)

Michael Kudenov
09/18/13 - 05/21/15

Clutter reduction in infrared imagery is critical to identifying targets from background radiation. As applied towards detection of remote objects, a failed detection could yield loss of life. Alternatively, false detections produce wasted time and resources, and may make users complacent. Dual spectral band imaging has been applied to this problem; however, it still yields a high false alarm rate (FAR). In order to reduce the FAR, hyperspectral imaging may prove useful. To this end, the proposed work is aimed at developing a sensor to perform wide field-of-view imaging at a high spectral resolution, thus identifying important targets from background clutter with a reduced FAR.

This project is sponsored by SA Photonics.

### Snapshot Retinal Imaging Mueller Matrix Polarimeter

Michael Kudenov, Michael James Escuti
08/01/14 - 07/31/16

While spectral imaging can often detect chemicals in a scene, polarimetry can sense structural effects. Thus, polarimeters have proven effective in the imaging of retinal tissues, and are able to sense tissue degradation due to early onset of ocular diseases, such as glaucoma and macular degeneration. However, current system architectures are limited by low temporal resolution and high cost. To address these concerns, this proposal focuses on the research and development of a new type of rapid snapshot imaging polarimeter that, for the first time, will be capable of real-time Mueller matrix imaging. The polarimeter will be developed for attachment onto a fundus camera to observe the efficacy of real-time full Mueller matrix measurements.

This project is sponsored by National Institutes of Health (NIH).

### Snapshot Spatial Heterodyne Imaging Fourier Transform (SHIFT) Spectropolarimeter

Michael Kudenov, Michael James Escuti
06/12/14 - 06/11/17

With the continuing emergence of hostile nuclear threats comes an increasing need for handheld sensors capable of identifying surface chemicals. To meet handheld requirements, the size, weight, and power (SWAP) of optical imaging sensors must be significantly reduced. Additionally, these sensors must be solid-state and/or monolithic, require no mechanical scanning (no moving parts), operate in real time, and must function in harsh environments (e.g. vibration, temperature variations, and movement). The objective of this research project is to develop an ultra-compact snapshot spectropolarimeter. The sensor will be capable of passively interrogating surfaces for chemical signatures with a low SWAP hyperspectral and polarimetric imaging capability.

This project is sponsored by University of Arizona.

### Biomechanical Evaluation of Strong Arm Vest

Chang S Nam, Edgar J Lobaton, Jeffrey Hoyle
01/01/14 - 07/31/14

The purpose is to understand the biomechanical and physiological differences in lifting with and without the use of the Strong Arm Vest.

The independent variables in this study will be VEST CONDITION, LOAD WEIGHT, and LIFT FREQUENCY. The dependent measures in this study will include both objective and subjective measures. The dependent measures in this study will include both objective and subjective measures. Four types of objective measures will be included in this study. In addition to the objective measures, a questionnaire with be administered to collect subjective measures of discomfort, fatigue, usability, and general comments/feedback.

This project is sponsored by Strong Arm Technologies, Inc..

### CPS: Synergy: Provably Safe Automotive Cyber-Physical Systems with Humans-in-the-Loop

Edgar J Lobaton
10/01/12 - 09/30/15

The automotive sector is one of the richest targets for emerging innovations in Cyber Physical Systems (CPS). Increased content electronics, non-contact sensors, controls and communication with the environment and the driver will change the way we drive and interact with our cars in the near future. However, despite the enormous number of fatalities and injuries on US and world roads, there is an enormous gap between research achievements in autonomous drive and the active safety systems currently available in production vehicles. We propose a paradigm shift which looks at whole cyber physical vehicle/environment/driver and thus address all its three main

critical components: (A) the vehicle/environment interaction, (B) the driver uncertainty and (C) the provably-safe intervention under the predicted uncertainty of A and B. We will develop a novel science for of Cyber-Physical Systems with the goal of obtaining a provably safe human-centric autonomy where certification is evidence-based and

evolves with the system (as new driver behaviors, scenes, slipping dynamics enter in the database of the CPS we construct in real-time). Robustness is measured against bounded state-dependent uncertainty of a driver/vehicle interaction model and of the scene reconstruction.

This project is sponsored by University of California - Berkeley.

### Kinematic and ECG Monitoring for Human Activity Identification

Edgar J Lobaton
09/01/14 - 08/31/15

The advances in nanotechnology from the ASSIST center aims to develop devices that will revolutionize individual health and environmental monitoring. To achieve this objective, correlations between the physical state of individuals, communities, and other sensed data must be analyzed. In this project, the correlation between human activities, electrocardiography and kinematic motion will be studied. A hardware platform that incorporates ECG and inertial sensing will be designed to identify the current activity of an individual. The validity of the approach will be evaluated using the existing motion capture system from the PI. The emphasis of this project will be on energy-efficient algorithms that can be implemented in portable devices via the identification of robust low dimensional structures in the data. Furthermore, exploratory work will be performed to incorporate other sensing modalities such as temperature and hydration in the correlation analysis.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Advanced Self Powered Systems of Sensors and Technologies (ASSIST) Center.

### LAS DO3 Task Order 2.6 Future States - Lobaton

Edgar J Lobaton
07/01/14 - 05/15/15

DO3 Task Order 2.6 Future States

This project is sponsored by Laboratory for Analytic Sciences.

### Cybersees: Type II: Cyber-Enabled Water and Energy Systems Sustainability Utilizing Climate Information

Sankarasubraman Arumugam, Ning Lu, Joseph F DeCarolis, Gnanamanikam Mahinthakumar, Tushar Sinha, Sreerama Sreepathi
09/01/14 - 08/31/18

Continually increasing water demand (due to population growth) and fuel costs threaten the reliability of water and energy systems and also increase operational costs. In addition, both natural climatic variability and the impacts of global climate change increase the vulnerability of these two systems. For instance, reservoir systems depend on precipitation; whereas power systems demand depend on mean daily temperature. Currently, these systems use seasonal averages for their short-term (0-3 months) management, which ignores uncertainty in the climate, thereby resulting in increased spillage and reduced hydropower. While seasonal climate forecasts contain appreciable levels of skill over parts of the US in both winter and summer, the uptake of these forecasts for water and energy systems management has been limited due to lack of a coherent approach to assimilate probabilistic forecasts into management models. We systematically analyze various scenarios that aim at improving the performance of these systems utilizing the multimodel climate forecasts and a high performance computing (HPC) framework.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Distribution Planning Criteria and Tools for Future Distributed Energy Resource Penetration Scenarios using Probabilistic Approaches, Core project for Center for Advanced Power Engineering Research (CAPER) led by Clemson University with NCSU being on

David Lee Lubkeman, Ning Lu
01/01/15 - 12/31/16

In this project, the team is developing distribution system planning criteria and associated tools for utility engineers for accommodating future integration of distributed energy resources (primarily distributed solar). These tools provide the utility the capability of modeling the impact of uncertain future DER penetration scenarios, quantifying the impacts of DER options and penetrations on distribution expansion and upgrade schemes.

This project is sponsored by Clemson University.

### Energy Operation Model Development: Hydrological Model Integration

Ning Lu
09/01/14 - 08/31/15

This project requires a graduate student to work at Pacific Northwest National lab to complete the following tasks:

•Study the interdependency between water system and electricity sectors

•Develop framework for integrating water/gas system into production cost model

•Implement the proposed method in EOM

•Evaluate the tool by running analysis for different test cases and comparing the results conventional production cost tools, such as EOM without modeling water/gas, PROMOD, and PLEXOS.

This project is sponsored by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

### Green Energy Hub - DGI-IEM Demonstration Industry Center Core Project

David Lee Lubkeman, Ning Lu, Alex Q. Huang, Mesut E. Baran, Wenye Wang, Iqbal Husain, Subhashish Bhattacharya
08/15/10 - 08/14/15

The Green Energy Hub testbed is an integrated hardware system demonstration incorporating technologies from the Enabling Technology and Fundamental Science research planes.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM).

### Olney Town Center Microgrid Project

David Lee Lubkeman, Ning Lu, Srdjan Miodrag Lukic, Aranya Chakrabortty
11/21/14 - 10/31/16

The NCSU team is going to support the microgrid institute in setting up a test system for the microgrid demo site and study and analyze the microgrid controller design.

This project is sponsored by Microgrid Institute.

### Probabilistic Available Transfer Capability Calculation Tool Phase III Developing a Graphical User Interface

Ning Lu
01/01/14 - 09/30/14

In Phase III of the project, we will develop a graphical user interface (GUI) in Matlab for the Probabilistic Available Transfer Capability Calculation Tool developed in Phase I and II. Necessary code modification will be done for the GUI to access codes developed in Phase I and II

The graphic interface will allow the users to

•Select input wind, load, generation data, TTC, TRM, and CBM & Firm Reservations data.

•Visualize the statistic characteristics of input time series data

•Define parameters of the Monte Carlo simulations to produce different scenarios

•Save results in the report format: projected/expected TTC and ATC

This project is sponsored by Idaho Power Company.

### CPS: Synergy: Collaborative Research: Diagnostics and Prognostics Using Temporal Causal Models for Cyber Physical Systems- A Case of Smart Electric Grid

Srdjan Miodrag Lukic
10/01/13 - 09/30/16

Resilience to failures is an important requirement for cyber-physical systems such as Smart Grids that are an integral part of our infrastructure. They consist of tightly conjoined networks of physical components (including generation, transmission, and distribution facilities) interfaced with cyber components (including sensors, communication lines, computational software). Efficient models and online tools for understanding failure propagation and fault source isolation are necessary for building systems that are resilient to failures. Dynamic conditions resulting from varying physical system state such as power consumption, changing operational requirements, physical component degradation, software failures pose great challenges in achieving the desired reliability. We propose to develop (a) new methodology to build fault models for complex cyber-physical systems such as smart grid, (b) develop an integrated system-wide solution for isolating faults and identifying future failure propagation that takes into account the existing protection mechanisms designed into the system. This work will be performed in the context of transmission and active distribution systems of smart grid. However, we believe that this work can be extended to other cyber physical systems as well.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

Srdjan Miodrag Lukic, John F. Muth
12/01/14 - 01/31/16

This project is sponsored by NCSU PowerAmerica: Next Generation Electronics Manufacturing Innovation Institute.

### Promoting Academic and Career Success for Raleigh Future Scholars at NC State

Leda Lunardi, Montserrat Fuentes, Cheryl Parzel Cass, Tony L. Mitchell
09/01/13 - 08/31/17

We seek 76 scholarships over four years to establish a successful program in engineering disciplines for low income undergraduate students at NC State University. This project also includes students majoring in statistics. We will create a pathway through Raleigh Promise for the academically talented and economically disadvantageous student population with a Raleigh permanent address, increasing their opportunities for STEM careers. We have identified several activities in which scholars will have participation priority, including mentoring, career readiness, and educational incentives that have proven to be very successful in academic success. We are proposing to make all need-based scholarship awards the same annual amount of \$5500. At the end of this project, we will have effectively increased the rate at which 76 STEM scholars have earned their degree, and built a more diverse and inclusive student population that interacts with and helps recruit new students entering NC State.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### REU Site: Engineering the Grid

Leda Lunardi, Lisa L. Grable
07/15/10 - 12/31/14

The main purpose is to provide financial assistance for undergraduate students to participate and present technical papers at the 2014 IEEE Southeast Conference to be held in Lexington,KY.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### High Quality Interfaces and Bulk Dielectrics for GaN based RF and Power Devices

Veena Misra
08/22/11 - 09/30/14

In this proposal, we will explore novel dielectrics and ultra scaled channel lengths to achieve ultra high performance GaN devices. We will also characterize and model reliability of these devices.

This project is sponsored by US Navy-Office Of Naval Research.

### Nanoscale Electronic and Energy Materials (NEEM) GAANN Program

Gregory N. Parsons, David E. Aspnes, Duane K. Larick, David A. Shultz, Veena Misra, Jon-Paul Maria
08/16/10 - 08/17/15

This project is sponsored by US Dept. of Education (DED).

### Nanoscale Electronic and Energy Materials (NEEM) GAANN Program

Gregory N. Parsons, David E. Aspnes, Duane K. Larick, David A. Shultz, Jon-Paul Maria, Veena Misra
08/16/12 - 08/15/15

Through interdisciplinary doctoral education in Nanoscale Electronic and Energy Materials (NEEM), North Carolina State University (NC State) proposes to increase its commitment to interdisciplinary graduate training in electronic and energy materials related to nanotechnology. This interdisciplinary field comprises several areas designated by the GAANN Program as critical to national need: Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Chemistry, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering, and Physics. Our goal is to enlarge the pool of U.S. citizens and permanent residents who pursue teaching and research careers in nanoscale electronic and energy materials, thereby developing the academic and research infrastructure and increase U.S. competitiveness.

This project is sponsored by US Dept. of Education (DED).

### PowerAmerica Misra Task 2.81 and 2.84

Veena Misra, John F. Muth
12/01/14 - 11/30/15

This project is sponsored by NCSU PowerAmerica: Next Generation Electronics Manufacturing Innovation Institute.

### Phase II: Growth, Characterization and Doping Processing for MgZnO by MOCVD Using Real-Time Spectroscopic Elipsometry

John F. Muth, David E. Aspnes, John E. Rowe
09/29/14 - 09/28/16

We propose to use MOCVD to grow doped MgZnO films on sapphire c-plane substrates. Characterization by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are used to determine the film quality and Mg composition.

This project is sponsored by Agnitron Technology, Inc..

### PowerAmerica: The Next Generation Power Electronics Manufacturing Innovation Institute

John F. Muth, B. Jayant Baliga, Subhashish Bhattacharya, Douglas C Hopkins, Iqbal Husain, Srdjan Miodrag Lukic, Ola L. Harrysson, Mehmet C. Ozturk, Veena Misra, Rogelio A Sullivan, Ewan Gareth David Pritchard, Alex Q. Huang, Dennis H. Kekas, Pam Page Carpenter
12/01/14 - 01/31/20

The Next Generation Power Electronics Manufacturing Innovation Institute - Power America

This project is sponsored by US Dept. of Energy (DOE).

### Purelux Novel Light Emitters III

John F. Muth
05/01/13 - 08/31/14

This proposal focuses on the development of novel light emitters.

This project is sponsored by PureLux, Inc..

### SBIR Phase II: Tethered Membranes For IR Sensor

John F. Muth
12/21/12 - 12/20/15

This project implements a MEMs sensor that may be used for infrared sensors that can be used for military or industrial applications.

This project is sponsored by New Jersey Microsystems, Inc.

### Underwater Robotics

John F. Muth
02/01/15 - 05/31/15

A grant to buy parts for building an underwater robot and traveling to San Diego for the AUVSI Robosub competition.

This project is sponsored by NCSU NC Space Grant Consortium.

### An Ultrasound-Based Noninvasive Neural Interface to the Retina

Omer Oralkan
08/01/13 - 07/31/16

We propose to develop a conformal miniaturized high-frequency ultrasound transducer array integrated with supporting electronics, to be formed in the shape of a contact lens. This proposal is based on our recent preliminary experimental results showing that the retina responds to focused ultrasound in a similar way to its natural stimulus, light. The proposed device will be designed to project desired ultrasound patterns for direct stimulation of neural circuits in the retina. Such a device has many potential applications including possible enhancement of vision, overlaying patterns on the visual input, or as a prosthetic device to restore vision in blind patients with regenerative retinal disease.

### Mechanically Resonant Chemical Sensor Arrays Based on Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers

Omer Oralkan
09/01/13 - 08/31/15

The main objective of the proposed project is to develop a highly sensitive gas sensing system based on a mechanically resonant mass-­‐loading sensor coated with selective functionalization layers. The mechanical resonator of choice is a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT), which is suitable for array implementation and achieves a high quality factor enabled by a vacuum cavity on the backside of a vibrating plate structure. The array approach is especially important to achieve high selectivity by functionalizing different elements of the array with different polymers. Our target analytes are volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

This project is sponsored by NCSU Advanced Self Powered Systems of Sensors and Technologies (ASSIST) Center.

### Nonplanar High-Frequency Wideband Ultrasonic Transducer Arrays

Omer Oralkan
01/01/14 - 12/31/16

Technological difficulties associated with high-frequency (>20 MHz) transducer arrays have prevented wide adoption of high-resolution imaging systems for many decades. The major technological hurdles for the development of high-frequency arrays have been related to the conventional manufacturing techniques used for piezoelectric transducers. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays showed over the last decade a great promise for the implementation of high-frequency arrays. In this pilot study we aim to develop novel CMUT designs and fabrication approaches to demonstrate high-frequency (40 MHz and 60 MHz center frequency) wideband (>100% fractional bandwidth) transducer arrays with a curvature in the elevation direction to achieve lensless elevation focusing.

This project is sponsored by National Institutes of Health (NIH).

### Percutaneous cardiac HIFU Ablation with Multimodal Image Guidance

Omer Oralkan
09/01/13 - 06/30/18

This project aims to develop a combined high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and

photoacoustic/ultrasound imaging system that will significantly improve the treatment of relatively common forms of heart disease, atrial fibrillation in particular, a form of arrhythmia affecting 0.4% to 1% of the general population and increasing with age. The described devices and systems will be developed based on the capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer technology, which employs silicon device fabrication techniques to implement ultrasonic transducers and supporting integrated front-end circuits.

This project is sponsored by Stanford University.

### Bridging Mathematics Contents to Engineering Contexts; Just-In-Time Assessment and Review Modules

Hatice O. Ozturk, Alina Nicoleta Duca, Henry J. Trussell
09/01/13 - 08/31/15

This project is designed around the new learning-based engineering education paradigm where the students work hard at learning while the mentor listens and guides. ?The guiding? is done on a technology platform according to the needs of the students which are assessed with questions at various levels of difficulty. The instructional design of this technology platform is done by a strong collaboration of mathematicians and engineering educators supported by the instructional software experts. The main goal of the project is to bridge the gap between math education of engineering students and their ability to apply this knowledge and skills in their engineering courses in a way that uniquely meets the needs of the students. Prerequisite math knowledge and skills are introduced as they are needed and in contexts that they will be used with the help of custom created Just-in-Time Assessment and Review modules. Preliminary results show that the proposed approach effectively increases the math preparedness of engineering students and results in improved achievement of course instructional objectives.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### High Performance Thermoelectrics

Mehmet C. Ozturk
09/01/12 - 08/31/15

This project aims at developing flexible thermoelectrics devices to harvest energy from the human body. Two approaches are being considered. In the first approach, a flexible package is developed to integrate thermoelectric legs grown by an epitaxial growth technique. In the second approach, polycrystalline thermoelectric materials are grown selectively in a flexible package. The ultimate goal is to integrate these devices on a flexible platform such as a wristband.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Advanced Self Powered Systems of Sensors and Technologies (ASSIST) Center.

### MRI: Acquisition of an Electron Beam Lithography System for the NCSU Nanofabrication Facility

Mehmet C. Ozturk, Veena Misra, Michael D. Dickey, Robert Riehn, Steven Allan Soper
09/01/12 - 08/31/15

Funds are requested to acquire an electron beam lithography system. The instrument will be located in the NCSU Nanofabrication Facility and it will be available to the facility's user base on a first come first served basis. The proposed instrument will be able to write patterns with a resolution of 10 nm or better, it will be able to accept wafer sizes up to 6 inches and it will be able to function as a scanning electron microscope.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### PowerAmerica Ozturk Task 2.9: Device and Process Flow Development for WBG Training and Foundry Operations

Mehmet C. Ozturk, John F. Muth
12/01/14 - 01/31/16

No abstract currently available.

This project is sponsored by NCSU PowerAmerica: Next Generation Electronics Manufacturing Innovation Institute.

### GOALI: Thermal Transport in AlGaN Alloys: Effect of Point and Structural Defects

Tania M Paskova, John F. Muth
08/15/13 - 07/31/16

The objective of this proposal is to perform a basic study of thermal conductivity of AlGaN alloys in the entire composition range with variable defect density achieved by using growth on different substrates and to explore the role of point and structural defects on the thermal transport in these materials.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### III-Nitride LED Structures on Sidewall Grown Semipolar Facets

Tania M Paskova, John F. Muth
07/01/12 - 06/30/15

This is an International Collaboration Supplement (ICS) request in conjunction with our NSF project # 1207075 titled "III-Nitride LED structures on sidewall grown semipolar facets", aiming to bring an additional strong scientific component that could leverage the success of the current program. The supplement will also enhance a productive on-going international collaboration with a spectroscopy group from the Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Workshop: 8th IW on Bulk Nitride Semiconductors: Growth Properties and Devices, to be held in Bavaria, Germany, Sept.30-Oct.5, 2013

10/01/13 - 03/31/16

The proposed project seeks financial support to US women and young researchers to attend the 8th International Workshop on Bulk Nitride Semiconductors to be held in Bavaria, Germany, Sept.30 - Oct.5, 2013.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### CAREER: Spin-Torque Oscillator Arrays

David Ricketts
12/23/12 - 12/31/15

This research investigates magnetostatic spin-wave generation, propagation, interaction and absorption in multi-layer Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) and Tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) spin-torque oscillator (STO) arrays. With the recent demonstration of spin-torque transfer and self-sustained oscillators, a new class of oscillator has emerged with extreme tunability and potential for excellent RF performance. Recent results have shown, however, that the potential of these new devices is limited by the large phase noise of individual devices due to the small amount of energy stored in a single device. A potential solution is the phase-locking of many STOs in a large array. This research focuses on the fundamental science of STO-STO interaction in multi-device arrays with the goal of laying the foundation for controllable, scalable arrays of STO oscillators. Specifically, this research proposal focuses on three tasks investigating fundamental science of spin-wave STO interaction: 1) Study of magnetostatic surface wave dynamics on multi-layer STO stacks, 2) Study of magnetostatic surface wave stimulated emission by an STO, and 3) Spatial dependence and scaling of STO-STO interactions.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Collaboration on Spin-Torque Oscillators and Diodes

David Ricketts
02/01/14 - 03/31/16

This is a Collaboration between NCSU and AIST Japan on Spin-Torque Oscillators and Diodes. The collaboration will consists of sharing joint test results and ideas on the fundamental physics, operation and measurement of spin-torque devices.

This project is sponsored by National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST).

### Multi-watt, Efficient, All-Silicon Power Amplifiers: MESPA

David Ricketts
09/02/13 - 09/01/15

Development of high-power, Power Amplifiers for high-speed communciation.

This project is sponsored by US Army.

### Near Frictionless Surface Acoustic Wave Active Bearing for Disk Drive and Other Applications

David Ricketts
12/15/12 - 08/31/15

This research investigates a novel mechanical interface which utilizes surface acoustic waves (SAW) for lubrication. In this concept, SAW?s are used to realize a direct contact interface with zero effective friction between two surfaces sliding at high relative velocities. If a traveling SAW is excited on one of the two surfaces moving relative to one another, and the contact points, which are the peaks of the traveling SAW, have the same horizontal velocity as the relative velocity between the two surfaces, the contact points will not experience any friction. The creation of zero-sliding-velocity contact points minimizes effective friction without applying any lubricants and, as a result, enables a host of new applications. This is the converse effect to ultrasonic motors, which use SAW?s to create friction forces between two surfaces. This concept in essence is an active mechanical bearing.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### SHF: Small: Design for Competitive Automated Layout (DCAL) of Mobile Application Processor

Eric Rotenberg
08/01/12 - 07/31/15

For two decades, personal computers and servers have been powered by increasingly sophisticated superscalar processors. The last few years has even witnessed the introduction of superscalar processors into smart phones and tablet PCs, in order to provide richer user experiences. There are important trends in both domains: server-class processors require unsustainable design effort, as evidenced by a select few, highly trained, large design teams in industry proliferating superscalar processors; mobile devices are evolving at an extraordinary pace. These trends suggest it is time to take a radical departure in the way superscalar processors are designed. In particular, the PI proposes superscalar processor design automation. This project explores challenges and solutions at key levels: (1) automatic FPGA-based processor-in-system exploration, (2) efficient and automatic ISA/microarchitecture decoupling, (3) automatic RTL generation via a superscalar design language, and (4) a low-effort physical design strategy and alternative to custom design.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### SHF:Small: AnyCore: A Universal Superscalar Core

Eric Rotenberg
09/01/10 - 08/31/15

Different applications achieve their highest performance on different processing hardware. The goal of this project is to design a universal computer architecture that can achieve the same effect as custom-fabricating the optimal processing hardware for arbitrary application behaviors.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### SHF:Small: EXACT: Explicit Dynamic-Branch Prediction with Active Updates

Eric Rotenberg
09/15/09 - 08/31/15

Continued microprocessor performance scaling is hindered by many factors. One factor above all, the branch prediction bottleneck, constrains the ability to tackle other factors. This project proposes a new direction in branch prediction research.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Streamlining Control-Flow

Eric Rotenberg
01/01/11 - 12/31/17

This project comprehensively addresses the control-flow problem in high-performance processors, to significantly improve their performance and energy efficiency.

This project is sponsored by Intel Corporation.

### A Password System Based on Sketches

Wesley E. Snyder, Wenye Wang
08/12/11 - 08/11/15

Access control and user authentication are key elements for protecting information systems. Access control and protection from the insider threat has been identified as one of the most significant issues in information assurance. In many Army missions, keyboards and card readers may not be available; however, the soldier may be using a hand-held communication device with a touch-sensitive screen. In such a scenario, drawing a simple sketch is likely to be the most ecient and e ective mechanism for access control. The soldier in the tactical environment will be provided with an easy-to-use, high reliability access control mechanism.

information system such as computers or network access. However to maintain security, users have been burdened with stringent password rules, such as password length and the use of special characters. Multiple passwords for di erent systems and frequently expiring passwords make the use the passwords a nightmare for many users. This frequently results in security risks, as users write their passwords down and use the same password on many systems. To overcome the burdens of password systems, the authors propose to develop a novel method for computer-access security, allowing the user to draw a simple sketch as his/her password. In this project we will develop a new sketch recognition algorithm, based on the PIs prior successful work in shape recognition. The new sketch based password system will be implemented and evaluated.

The user desiring access (referred to as the artist hereafter), will draw a sketch on a

digitizer pad or touch-sensitive screen (e.g. iPad). The sketch will be matched to a data base of sketches. The principal innovation of the proposed algorithm is treating the sketch as a function of time, and using local measures of that function as parameters for the shape-recognition algorithm, SKS.

This project is sponsored by US Army - Army Research Office.

### CSR:Small:Efficient and Predictable Memory Hierarchy For High-Performance Embedded Systems

Yan Solihin, Alexander G. Dean, Mihail L. Sichitiu, Thomas G. Wolcott
09/01/09 - 08/31/14

The proposed work will advance the state of the art in sensor networks for monitoring the underwater environment. The work will use these results in conjunction with other enhancements to an existing rapid software prototyping tool to create a low-cost sensor network infrastructure for intensively monitoring and exploring estuarine and shallow coastal environments. The PIs will collaborate with scientific and environmental professionals in North Carolina, the Southeastern US and the Chesapeake Bay area to develop, apply, evaluate and promote this infrastructure.

We propose to build a low-cost estuarine sensor network infrastructure which relies upon wireless

(RF) communication to support over-the-air communication to monitor data in real-time and upload it to the internet for dissemination. Data will be gathered by a variety of inexpensive submerged and above-water networked nodes, including fixed stations, buoys, and vehicles (remotely operated and autonomous), some of which have been developed by a collaborator at NOAA.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### SHF:Small:Collaborative Research:Beyond Secure Processors - Securing Systems Against Hardware Attacks

Yan Solihin
09/15/09 - 08/31/14

Increasing amounts of potentially valuable data are stored and processed in

computer system, which motivates increasingly sophisticated attacks to obtain

and/or tamper with this information. Protection against such attacks is needed

for many important features of secure computing, such as enforcement of

copyright protection for content and software, prevention of reverse

engineering, trusted distributed computing, and fairness (prevention of

cheating) in virtual environments.

One important emerging threat are hardware attacks, which exploit the fact

that data can be read or modified directly in the system's memory using devices

that dump or scan memory chips. Data transfered along system buses is similarly

vulnerable to hardware attacks. These attacks may be more difficult to perform

than software-based attacks, but they are also very powerful. A physical attack

can bypass all software security protection in the system, allowing attackers

to read memory locations that store cryptographic keys and other sensitive

information that may be used in software protection schemes. Widely available

and inexpensive mod-chips that bypass Digital Rights Management in game systems

demonstrate that physical attacks are very realistic threats.

We propose: (1) To conduct detailed investigation into secure booting

and configuration mechanisms for secure processors, (2) To explore how

secure processors can support system features such as virtualization,

virtual memory, inter-process communication, secure I/O communication,

and achieve all those with low performance and storage overheads, and

(3) To investigate how secure processor technology can be supported in

a variety of computer platforms such as single processor systems, mobile

systems, and multiprocessor systems with various interconnect topologies.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### SHF:Small:Towards a Versatile Analytical Modeling Toolset for Evaluating Memory Hierarchy Design

Yan Solihin
08/01/11 - 07/31/15

Today, the primary tool used for evaluating future computer system designs is simulation, where each machine instruction and its impact on processor and memory state are simulated in great details. While powerful and versatile, processor simulation is exceedingly slow: roughly four to five orders of magnitude slower than native execution. Unfortunately, in the future, solely relying on processor simulation will be too constraining, due to increasing cache sizes that requires longer simulation time, increasing use of hypervisor or user-level virtual machines that need to be simulated as well in addition to the Operating System, increasing number of cores on chip that result in longer simulation time, and increasing occurrence of multi-programmed and multi-threaded workload.

Analytical modeling is an attempt to capture fundamental relationships between various parameters of a design and to capture how they affect performance or power/energy consumption. An analytical model is much faster to run and can be reasonably accurate. Unfortunately, widespread use of analytical models have been hampered by the lack of widely available toolset that researchers can use and build upon, and the high barrier of entry into using and developing them. The objective of this proposal is to integrate various disparate analytical models into a single toolset that can be used by researchers for computer architecture design and evaluation. The expected outcome of this project is a tool that aids processor simulation through three important roles: providing ability to reason about what parameters determine the outcome of a performance phenomenon, discovering insights into how architecture parameters fundamentally relate to one another, and providing first-order approximation that allows narrowing down the search space for simulation studies. The impact of this project is that it enables computer design and evaluation to be improved significantly in terms of quality (deeper insights can be obtained), as well as resource efficiency (less simulation time is required to arrive at the same observations).

The project has the following components. One component is analysis of various analytical models in order to characterize their input, output, key techniques, and assumptions. Another component is common denominator analysis and model integration analysis, in order to identify common denominators of various models. The third component is a support infrastructure for the models. The fourth component is a toolset that integrates the analytical models, benchmarks, profiling tools, documentation into a software package that the community can use through an easy-to-use and intelligent interface. The final component is integration of the project into existing courses, with an emphasis on classroom materials suitable for undergraduate course. These materials will be made available for public download, and community enhancement and extension.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Sound and Electromagnetic Interacting Waves (MURI)

Michael B. Steer, Mohammed A. Zikry, David Schurig, Hamid Krim
08/01/10 - 12/31/15

This project will develop the basic science of acoustic and electromagnetic interactions leading to the engineering of new sensors that can exploit the knowledge that these interactions provide about the environment. Stand-off probing of surface and buried objects using acoustic probes is complicated by the poor knowledge of nonlinear and diffusive acoustic effects. Great insights, including differentiation of objects, can be obtained by exploiting nonlinear acoustic interactions and by exploiting long-tail effects resulting from acoustic diffusion inside an object. The overall concept is to develop the fundamental knowledge enabling the development of a tricorder-like device for interrogating the environment thus contributing to total situational awareness

This project is sponsored by US Navy-Office Of Naval Research.

### Time-Frequency and Non-Laplacian Phenomena at Radio Frequencies

Michael B. Steer
09/30/12 - 09/29/15

Recent phenomenological investigations of the fundamental limits to the performance of radio, radar and sensor systems have revealed radio-frequency (RF) interference effects that do not have the expected integer calculus descriptions. Some of these effects derive from electro-thermal diffusive interactions and it is believed that many other effects similarly derive from diffusion. Also, time-frequency effects have been discovered in which the temporal response of electronics excited by a pulsed RF signal is significantly longer than linear frequency-domain analysis would imply. It is believed that these derive from diffusion-like effects as well and require fractional calculus. The project?s premise is that using integer calculus-based analysis has resulted in sources of interference in RF systems being missed. This project investigates the underlying physics of diffusive RF phenomena. Time-domain fractional calculus-based descriptions transformed into the frequency-domain become non-Laplacian (i.e. non-integer-based). However, conventional analysis of RF structures is based on integer-based Laplacian frequency-domain analysis derived from integer calculus. The project extends the engineer?s RF analysis toolkit to include non-Laplacian models and abstractions. The work will lead to new paradigms for understanding interference at RF, for enhancing RF systems, for deriving fundamental limits of performance at RF, for developing signatures, and for manipulating RF electronics.

This project is sponsored by US Army - Army Research Office.

### A Digital Camera Based Method for Color Quality Control of the OCP Camouflage Fabrics

Renzo Shamey, Henry J. Trussell
09/23/13 - 09/22/16

The present proposal has the objective to develop, validate and implement an imaging system for the color quality control and assessment of Operation Enduring Freedom (OCP) camouflage substrates.

This work comprises the following main components:

1) Obtaining a statistically valid set of pass and fail responses for a large set of camouflage substrates from a group of expert color assessors that repeat their judgments on multiple trials which will be used to train the system.

2) Developing a numerical algorithm based on an imaging technique that utilizes the above visual criteria to establish instrumental acceptability boundaries.

3) Comparison of the performance of the numerical models used in the imaging techniques against visual judgments for a new set of test samples.

4) Prediction of P/F judgments for a variety of substrates. In order to improve the effectiveness of the proposed technique, different types of material (woven, knitted, nonwoven, & different blends) that are commonly utilized in the production of camouflage material in different sectors, should be made available to be visually rated and to train the system.

This project is sponsored by US Army.

### CSR:Small: A Practical Data Dependence Profiler for Program Characterization and Optimization

James Tuck
10/01/13 - 09/30/16

We'll design an infrastructure that leverages a fast and accurate DDP for characterization and optimization.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Exploring Cross-Layer, Integrated Approaches for Improving the Reliability of Heterogeneous Multicore Processors

James Tuck
04/01/13 - 03/31/16

This project, just underway, is exploring cross-layer techniques for improving system reliability due to hardware faults in future processors and software. Given the cross-layer nature of this project that includes cooperative hardware and software techniques, it provides an exceptional opportunity for undergraduate students to gain a deep knowledge of computer systems that spans the boundaries of traditional computing disciplines. Furthermore, given the large design space and challenging characteristics of the problems we are working on, there are many opportunities for undergraduate students to get involved and contribute to the research project. In particular, undergraduate students with a basic knowledge of software can code up algorithms that exploit redundancy in software, or they can evaluate techniques within the compiler or hardware and measure performance, reliability, and power trade-offs. Alternatively, students with Verilog coding experience can help implement reliability enhancing techniques for performance and power characterization using standard synthesis tools. By placing some of these activities in the hands of an undergraduate, they gain valuable design and research experience, and it allows graduate students to focus on the most challenging aspects of the project.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Exploring Cross-Layer, Integrated Approaches for Improving the Reliability of Heterogeneous Multicore Processors

James Tuck
04/01/13 - 03/31/16

As minimum feature sizes in microprocessor devices continue to scale down, the susceptibility of hardware to a plurality of faults is increasing. Resilient system design is no longer relegated to high-end, business applications where cost is no issue. Now even inexpensive consumer electronics will need some support for fault tolerance. However, approaches that double or triple system costs by replicating hardware are likely too expensive for consumer electronics, like phones, tablets, or laptops. This project will investigate a new way of modeling and supporting hardware fault tolerance that allows and relies on software and hardware working together cooperatively. The key idea is the design of a system vulnerability model (SVM) which approximates the vulnerability of an application to a hardware error while running on a given hardware platform. Using the model, each layer of the system, for example the CPU, offers knobs which can be tuned to control overall system vulnerability. This allows the design of systems that cheaply provide the right amount of fault tolerance for a given application.

These research activities have several broader impacts. The results of this research could impact how future computer systems provide fault tolerance. Ultimately, such impact benefits society by helping sustain the demand for reliable computing devices. In the immediate future, it will support the training of graduate students in this critical area, and it will support enhancement of the undergraduate curriculum at NC State to include topics in fault tolerance.

This project is sponsored by Semiconductor Research Corporation.

### Student Travel Support for the 2014 International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ISCA-41)

James Tuck
06/01/14 - 05/31/15

The proposal requests travel support funds to enable students

to defray the costs of traveling to and attending ISCA-41. The conference is being held in Minneapolis, MN. The funds requested from NSF will help support the large number of students that are expected to attend ISCA, including those that are not members of IEEE or ACM. Priority will be given to students that are US citizens and permanent residents, as well as to students belonging to under-represented groups.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Rational Design of Thermoelectric Materials and Material Processing Approaches Based on Microwave Processing of Silicides

Daryoosh Vashaee
10/01/14 - 07/31/17

This research plan aims to develop a path to construct thermoelectric devices with greatly improved efficiency, much greater than improvements due to reduction of thermal conductivity exploited in nanotechnological approaches. A novel class of electronic materials will be designed and created based on bulk amorphous structures including amorphous-crystalline composites. The thermoelectric properties will be controlled via a combined theoretical and experimental effort. The PI and Co-PIs will adopt a synthesis method that is scalable for manufacturing; hence, the developed materials based on silicides must be efficient, cost effective, thermally stable, mechanically robust, and appropriate for batch processing. Although the primary focus will be on silicide thermoelectrics, the results are expected to pave the way for creating novel amorphous base electronic, optical and magnetic materials.

The program has two immediate and overlapping educational goals: (1) improve students' capability of interdisciplinary research, and (2) enhance relevance learning for both undergraduate and graduate students. These goals will be addressed through the development of a complementary set of multidisciplinary courses in nanoscience and technology. In particular, the following goals will be emphasized: (1) the capability of synthesizing interdisciplinary contents, (2) collaborative teamwork and learning skills, and (3) “hands-on” laboratory and research experiences.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Thermoelectric Energy Generators Based on High Efficiency Nanocomposite Materials

Daryoosh Vashaee
09/01/14 - 08/31/15

We have been able to develop some of the most efficient bulk thermoelectric materials in our laboratory in recent years. Among these materials, (Bi,Sb)2(Se,Te)3 based nanocomposite structures are of special interest for body heat energy harvesting. The focus of this project is to make efficient thermoelectric generators (TEG) optimized for on-body applications. Due to the space and weight limitation, such TEG devices suffer from poor heat dissipation; therefore, both the material and the device must be designed to match the existing thermal load. For this purpose, the figure of merit, ZT, although critical, is not the only important parameter and each material property, geometrical factors, electrical and thermal contacts, and interfacing with the power conditioning unit must be optimized.

At material level, we will tune the thermoelectric properties, namely, electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity for a practically achievable TEG geometry to match with the on-body conditions. At device level, we design and make the TEG considering the heat source and sink conditions, surface area, form factors, and the voltage required for the boost converter. TEG devices will have suitable shapes to sit on the wrist or arm area. We will work closely with the group developing the flexible substrate for the fabrication of the TEG devices.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Advanced Self Powered Systems of Sensors and Technologies (ASSIST) Center.

### Development of Platform and Tools for FREEDM Decentralized Monitoring and Control

Wenye Wang, David Lee Lubkeman
09/01/12 - 08/31/14

The FREEDM concept is based on a decentralized distribution management system collectively referred to as the DGI (Distributed Grid Intelligence). The DGI supports a variety of functionalities for the FREEDM System including the plug-and-play functionality, power management (IPM), energy management (IEM) and fault management (IFM) services. Many of the IPM functionalities are potentially performed by lower layer DGI software modules embedded in the DSP controllers of the FREEDM devices such as the Solid State Transformer (SST), the Fault Interrupting Device (FID), DESD, DRER as well as related legacy devices. Furthermore, the DGI processes on distributed devices are linked by RSC (Reliable and Secure Communications) communications interfaces and associated protocols.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM).

### NeTS-Small: Exploring Theoretical Foundation of Mobile Clouds: From One-Hop Neighbors To the Internet

Wenye Wang, Do Young Eun
10/01/14 - 09/30/17

In this project, we plan to explore fundamental issues that advance our

understanding of using mobile clouds in deliverying wireless data traffic. In other words, we aim to find out whether and under what conditions mobile clouds are feasible for providing mobile application services or not and whether there exist theoretical limits or guidelines that can help or hinder the development of mobile

clouds. An in-depth understanding of such questions would greatly help emerging new applications over mobile platform.

Therefore, we propose to focus on four inter-correlated,

equally important issues toward building blocks of a theoretical foundation for mobile cloud computing, that is, evolution of single-hop mobile cloudlet, performance of opportunistic mobile cloudlet, efficient discovery of neighboring cloudlets and spatial-temporal properties of mobile-to-cloud. In particular, we consider the data transportation over the wireless sector in which our main objective is to have a close-up of formation and evolution of mobile cloudlet over time, with possible intermediate relays, and ends

up with base stations or access points.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### NeTS: A Timing Perspective on Information Dissemination in Vehicular Adhoc Networks

Wenye Wang, Alexandra Duel-Hallen
09/01/10 - 08/31/15

This proposal supplement focuses on channel measurements to complement the theoretical investigation for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) of the parent proposal. As one of the most promising large-scale applications of mobile ad hoc networks, vehicular networking has emerged as a radically new paradigm for the design of networking protocols, mobility models, and a variety of new applications for our daily lives. This technology has its roots in on-board sensors in vehicles, global position systems (GPS) receivers, and algorithms/protocols in ad hoc networks, which enable vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications without infrastructure equipment (e.g., base stations in cellular systems). While a good level of understanding of network performance has been accumulated, it does not fulfill the needs of VANET, partially because of lack of deployment of sound channel models, and partially due to the challenges of modeling and analysis for vehicular environments with significant dynamics and randomness. As vehicular communications advance large-scale and social networks, there is an acute

and timely demand for exploring fundamental principles of mobility-induced channels and network dynamics, which have not been studied systematically, but have tremendous impact on a wide range of research areas, such as channel prediction, routing protocol designs, optimization techniques for performance analysis and estimation, and modeling of network architecture and topology.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Robust Network Architecture Against Random Threats in WMD Environments: Theoretical Limits and Recovery Strategies

Wenye Wang, Hamid Krim
04/01/08 - 07/31/14

The national infrastructure, such as civilian and military telecommunication networks, power grids, and transportation systems are vulnerable to large-scale physical attacks in WMD environments. Under such attacks, the intrinsic nature of {\em

networking} inevitably surrenders a given infrastructure to cascading or correlated failures in both temporal and spatial domains, which in turn, have a great and potentially devastating impact on network operation availability and performance. In the extension period of this project, we will focus on network vulnerability to such failures and on assessing network availability, subject to variations in traffic and user

demands, as well as critical elements. To this end, we will first study the underlying network topology that is used to monitor, detect, and identify attacks, by analyzing the topological structure (i.e., operational state) of a network. We will subsequently explore how {\em cascading} and {\em correlated} failures are formed and will propagate in networks, and how such failures disrupt communications. Then we will define a set of new metrics to measure/evaluate network vulnerabilities in order to

identify the conditions and scenarios that would have the maximum destructive effect on the network in geographical regions, virtual domains, and connectivity.

This project is sponsored by Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).

### CREATIV Dynamic Regulatory Modeling of the Iron Deficiency Response in Arabidopsis thaliana

Cranos Williams, Joel J. Ducoste, Terri Long, James Tuck
08/15/12 - 07/31/17

In this proposal, we present a novel paradigm for identifying putative cis-regulatory promoter targets that control the regulation of stress responses in plants. This paradigm will also be used to identify critical regulatory components that differentiate the regulatory stress response across different cell types. We first develop the computational and analytical infrastructure needed to build a dynamic model of the gene regulatory network from time-course transcription profile data that quantifies the stress response. Novel analytical model refinement techniques are proposed to reduce the space of feasible solutions, generate specifications for model validation experiments, and test functional redundancy in the response. Parallel computing architectures will be used to scale the implementation of these model refinement approaches to the size and complexity associated with gene regulatory networks. The dynamic model of the gene regulatory network will be used to identify relationships between genes, build corresponding functional modules, and identify putative cis-regulatory promoter targets and regulatory components that can be used to alter responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Previous cell-specific transcription profiling has indicated that cell types have distinct expression profiles and respond differently to stress. We will generate cell-specific time-course transcription profiles using experiment specifications derived from the dynamic gene regulatory network. These data will be used to create a cell-specific dynamic gene regulatory network for identifying regulators that are key in differentiating the stress response between cell types.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Modeling of Cellulose, Hemicellulose and Lignin-Carbohydrate Complex Formation and Regulation to Understand Plant Cell Wall Structure

Vincent Chiang, Ronald R. Sederoff, Hou-min Chang, David C. Muddiman, Cranos Williams, Fikret Isik, Joel J. Ducoste, Christopher P. Smith
09/01/11 - 11/30/15

Plant cell walls are the essential components of feedstocks for biomass based liquid fuel alternatives to petroleum. The secondary cell walls of woody plants contribute greatly to biomass and are targets for improving potential feedstocks. In the application of systems biology to development of new biofuels, as in any complex biological process, predictive modeling is the central goal. We propose to use a systems approach with genome based information and mathematical modeling to advance the understanding of the biosynthesis of the plant secondary cell wall. To do this, we will use multiple transgenic perturbations and measure effects on plants using advanced quantitative methods of genomics, proteomics, and structural chemistry. The combination of quantitative analysis, transgenesis, statistical inference and systems modeling provide a novel and comprehensive strategy to investigate the regulation, biosynthesis and properties of the secondary cell wall.

This project is sponsored by US Dept. of Energy (DOE).

### Regulation and Modeling of Lignin Biosynthesis

Vincent Chiang, Ronald R. Sederoff, Joel J. Ducoste, Fikret Isik, David C. Muddiman, Cranos Williams, Christopher P. Smith, Reza A Ghiladi
09/15/09 - 09/30/15

Lignin is a unique and complex phenylpropanoid polymer, important in plant development and response to environment. We propose to advance our knowledge of lignin biosynthesis by developing a comprehensive pathway model of regulatory and metabolic flux control mechanisms. Our primary tool will be systematic gene specific perturbation in transgenic Populus trichocarpa. We will perturb all 34 known lignin pathway and regulatory network genes in P. trichocarpa using artificial microRNA (amiRNA) and RNAi suppression. From each independent transgenic perturbation, we will obtain quantitative information on transcript and protein abundance, enzyme kinetics, metabolite concentrations, and lignin structural chemistry. Using statistical correlation and path analysis, we will integrate this information to develop a mechanistic-based signaling graph and metabolic flux model for the pathway and its regulation leading to specific lignin structures. This model will reveal regulatory constraints on steady-state flux distributions and show how genes and other process components affect flux activity of lignin precursors, composition, and linkages. In this way, we will provide a systems biology approach to this fundamental pathway. There are few opportunities in higher plants to integrate genomics, biochemistry, chemistry and modeling to develop a comprehensive understanding of biosynthesis and structure of a major component of morphology and adaptation.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

### Achieving Performance and Power Efficiency for Single Threaded Programs

Huiyang Zhou
01/01/11 - 12/31/15

This project investigates microarchitectural techniques to achieve high performance and energy efficiency for single threaded applications.

This project is sponsored by Intel Corporation.

### Performance Modeling and Tuning for GPU Memory Hierarchy - support for student Hongwen Dai, TO 4000135576

Huiyang Zhou
01/01/15 - 09/30/15

This project investigates the memory hierarchy of GPUs.

This project is sponsored by Oak Ridge National Laboratories - UT-Battelle LLC.

### SHF:Small:CPU-GPU Collaborative Execution in Fusion Architectures

Huiyang Zhou
08/01/12 - 07/31/16

Recent advances in semiconductor technologies have led to fusion architectures, in which the central processing units (CPUs) and graphics processing units (GPUs) are integrated onto the same chip. Sandy

Bridge processors from Intel and accelerated processing units (APUs) from AMD are such examples.

However, current fusion architectures mainly take advantage of form factors and CPUs and GPUs operate very similar to discrete parts. In this proposal, we make the key observation that fused CPU-GPU architectures enable new opportunities to address important challenges in either CPU computing or GPU computing, which is also referred to as general-purpose computation on GPU (GPGPU).

We propose novel CPU-GPU collaborative execution paradigms, in which CPUs and GPUs execute programs in a synergic manner. In CPU-assisted GPU computing, CPUs runs ahead either to warm up the shared data cache for GPU threads or to inform GPUs the thread organization for incoming divergent branches so as to improve the GPU resource utilization. In GPU-assisted CPU computing, GPUs will either profile the locality of CPU programs to improve the memory hierarchy performance or monitor the run-time anomalies to enhance the reliability of CPU execution.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).