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Research Projects

The Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering boasts an active and agile research community comprised of our nationally recognized staff, students, and collaborating colleagues. This cadre of scientists is bolstered by grants, both private and public, to further explore our field's unknown horizons.

Our department is filled with knowledgeable, astute individuals dedicated to uncovering new ideas and technology in the areas of Bioelectriconics, Communications, Computer Architecture, Nanoelectronics, and Power Systems. Our department encourages these efforts by providing a number of cutting-edge facilities and services to cultivate scientific progress.

Our research team is world recognized and funded by top names in both the public and private sectors. Government organization such as The National Science Foundation, The Army Research Office, and the U.S. Department of Energy, as well as corporations such as Cisco Systems, Qualcomm, Hewlett-Packard, and Red Hat have all allocated resources to further our research and development.

Our college has been awarded two Engineering Research Centers (ERCs) by the National Science Foundation. These ERCs are part of a nation-wide group of university level interdisciplinary centers that work in partnership with local industry to pursue strategic solutions to complex engineering problems. ERCs have the potential to revolutionize entire products, systems, methodologies, and industries. This support is a large reason why our college is ranked seventeenth in the nation in research expenditures and fourteenth in industry support, according to the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) in 2007.

Current Research Grants By Type

 

Research in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering covers the gamut from basic to applied. Specific topics include not only those under our eight research areas, but themes such as novel ways to teach fundamental concepts, engineering as a life-long discipline, and the engineering education community.

The following list represents the projects active during the July 1st, 2015 through June 31st, 2016 fiscal year. Unfunded research is conducted continuously as the scientific curiosity of our faculty lead them to new areas of inquiry. Although we list only the principal investigators from each project, research is typically carried out through collaboration of the faculty, their students, and colleagues. This list of projects is updated daily. Links to compiled listings of previous years' projects are posted on this page's sidebar as they become available.


All Projects: 146 found

Electronic Shaping of Liquid Metal for Tunable Antennas

Michael D. Dickey, Jacob James Adams
03/19/15 - 08/31/16

Future communication systems will operate in highly complex electromagnetic environments, requiring adaptable architectures where a single compact device can support multiple wireless standards, be resilient to interference, and have degrees of freedom in the spatial and spectral domains. One of the foremost needs for adaptive radios are reconfigurable antennas that can adjust their radiation patterns, polarization, or frequency characteristics. Conventional frequency agile antennas use switches or varactors to modify the frequency response of the antenna; however, these point-based switching mechanisms limit their adaptability. In contrast to a point-based switching approach, this project investigates a new reconfiguration technique by physically reshaping the conductive paths on an aperture using electrically actuated liquid metals. This seed project seeks to go beyond our proof of principle experiments—which suggest that it is possible to make reconfigurable liquid metal antennas—to identify the capabilities and limitations of this emerging class of antennas.

This project is sponsored by UNC - General Administration.

Evaluation of Direct Antenna Modulation (DAM) Schemes for Antenna Miniaturization

Jacob James Adams
09/01/14 - 08/31/17

Emerging communication, sensing, and tracking applications continue to require smaller antennas, driven by the form factor of wireless devices. However, while many electronic components benefit from rapidly decreasing size according to Moore’s Law, antennas face miniaturization limitations when their sizes are below a quarter-wavelength that negatively impact their gain, efficiency, system range, and bandwidth.

Due to physical requirements on the amount of electromagnetic energy stored in the near field of resonant structure such as a small antenna, a modulated pulse applied to the antenna inherently experiences some “ringing” in the time domain. In the frequency domain this is equivalent to a narrowband response. Because of this response, the antenna effectively acts as a narrowband filter, and wideband, short-time pulses cannot be effectively transmitted or received, thereby limiting the data rate.

Recent evidence suggests that it may be possible to increase the data rate while maintaining a small electrical size by directly modulating the antenna’s impedance in sequence with the modulated carrier wave applied to the antenna’s feed. However, no comparison has been made between the direct antenna modulation (DAM) scheme and a conventional scheme using typical communications metrics. In this project, we will 1) design and simulate a DAM transmitter and conventional receiver in order to understand how varying signal to noise ratios (SNR) affect key system metrics such as bit error rate (BER) and 2) develop a testbed to generate DAM signals with a reconfigurable antenna in order to characterize the performance of these systems.

This project is sponsored by Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

Wireless, Integrated Biaxial Strain Sensors Using Silver Nanowires

Jacob James Adams
07/01/14 - 08/31/15

This project will leverage recently demonstrated flexible silver nanowire antennas to develop wireless strain sensors that can sense strain in two dimensions. Current antenna-based sensors can sense strain in one dimension, the new sensors will be designed with multiple radiating frequencies which respond differently to strain in orthogonal directions. In this way, the frequency response of the antenna can be mapped to the actual two dimensional strain applied. We will investigate several aspects of these sensors including techniques to make multiple resonances that are affected uniquely by biaxial strain and how the physical size of the sensor affects the ability to accurately predict strain.

This project is sponsored by Southeastern Center for Electrical Engineering Education.

PowerAmerica Baliga Task 2.8 and 2.83

B. Jayant Baliga, John F. Muth
12/01/14 - 01/31/16

Tasks 2.82 and 2.83 for PowerAmerica

This project is sponsored by NCSU PowerAmerica: Next Generation Electronics Manufacturing Innovation Institute.

Silicon Carbide Devices for FID and SST Applications

B. Jayant Baliga, Alex Q. Huang, Veena Misra, Douglas C Hopkins
09/01/08 - 08/31/15

The IFM functionality requires semiconductor switches that can rapidly turn-off line currents whenever a fault is detected by the system. The semiconductor device must be capable of supporting the peak AC line voltage in both directions. It must have low on-state voltage drop to reduce power losses during normal operating states of the system. At present, the FID has been implemented in Gen-I using 6.5-kV IGBTs with a series diode to provide reverse blocking capability. This combination has an on-state voltage drop of nearly 15 volts because three 6.5-kV silicon IGBTs and three 6.5-kV silicon diodes are connected in series. The present configuration cannot provide fault current limiting.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM).

DGI Algorithms for Volt-Var Control

Mesut E. Baran
09/01/11 - 08/31/15

Volt/var control is one of the key applications on a FREEDM system which require fast response. In last three years, PI have developed algorithms for this application. The first application involves using directional Overcurrent Relays with a pilot signal to provide alternative protection for the FREEDM system which does not require very fast communication. The second application involves a volt/var control scheme to provide voltage control on a FREEDM system. A distributed control scheme has been developed for this purpose.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM).

CIF: Small: Universal Signal Estimation from Noisy Measurements

Dror Zeev Baron
09/01/12 - 08/31/16

Motivation: A ubiquitous feature in many signal processing systems is to learn the input statistics from historical data. In these systems, Bayesian methods perform statistically optimal signal processing. However, there are applications including file compression, speech recognition, network monitoring, and compressed sensing in which it might be impractical to learn the statistics a priori. In such applications, a statistical approach that adapts to the data at hand must be used.

The information theory community has championed the use of universal algorithms, they achieve the best possible statistical performance asymptotically despite not knowing the input statistics.

These algorithms have had tremendous impact in lossless compression, where the goal is to describe data as succinctly as possible while allowing a decoder to reproduce the input perfectly. In sharp contrast, universal algorithms have had little impact on other areas.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

Engineering Strain in InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Wells for Improved Optical Devices

Salah M. Bedair, Nadia A. El-Masry
09/01/14 - 08/31/17

Abstract:

Current optical devices based on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures suffer from poor performance at long emission wavelengths due to low quantum efficiency and the droop phenomena. Some of the limitations are related to the very high strain and the accompanied piezoelectric fields present in the InGaN wells. We propose a strain balanced multiple quantum well (SBMQW) structure made of a thick InxGa1-xN template followed by InyGa1-yN/GaN MQW, where x < y.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

GOALI:Cooperative Integration of High Efficiency Multijunction Solar Cell Structures

Salah M. Bedair
10/01/11 - 09/30/16

NCSU is requesting a supplement for one year from NSF to be able to carry out and finish few tasks that were not done yet. NCSU logger is 554351. NSF reference number is -ECCS:1102060. This supplement will allow us to integrate the GaAs junction with SBSLS with an InGaP top cell using a connecting tunnel junction.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

Growth of Low Defect Density III- Nitride Compounds on Nanowires

Salah M. Bedair
09/15/11 - 08/31/15

This is a Graduate Research Supplement (GRS) request is made to extend the support of a promising PhD graduate student of Hispanic origin to continue working in my research group. This supplement will be used in conjunction with our NSF project # 1105842 titled "Growth of low Defect Density III-N compounds on Nanowires". This supplement request will be used to provide the student stipend, health insurance, tuition, and for attending conferences.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

Technology Enabling Ultra High Concentration Multi-Junction Cells

Salah M. Bedair, John R. Hauser
09/01/11 - 12/31/15

We propose to reduce the current cost of multijunction (MJ) solar cells by developing a robust tunnel junction (TJ) to connect the various sub-cells. This TJ is capable of operating at high solar concentration (~2000?e) with high peak current and minimal voltage drop across the TJ.

Tunnel Junction Problems and Proposed Approaches:

1) The properties of as-grown tunnel junctions (TJ) deteriorate due to high temperature exposure, during the growth of the middle and top cells, which make the MJ structure not suitable for high solar concentration.

Approach: Insert diffusion barriers and modify the band structure at the junction interface.

2) Fluctuations in the TJ properties due to non-uniform doping levels and the variation in the concentration optics affect the performance of the MJ solar structure.

Approach: Increase excess current by the manipulation of impurities in the highly doped films.

This project is sponsored by US Dept. of Energy (DOE).

Demonstration of Validated SST Models in Looped System LSSS Case Studies Including Islanding, Blackstart, volt/var (VVC) and CVR Control Functionalities

Subhashish Bhattacharya
09/01/12 - 08/31/15

The LSSS model objective is to demonstrate the proper operation of the components developed for the FREEDM looped distribution system. Typically the distribution systems in the world are radial networks. It was recognized that the distributed generation requires the transformation of the radial networks to a loop network or a quasi-loop network which assures double contingency for generation. The latest development in automated smart distribution grid is a network where all feeders are terminated by sectionalizing or reclosing switch at both end. The specific objectives of this project are to demonstrate the developed and validated SSTs – there are three distinct SSTs with their distinct control functionalities and ratings – (1) Substation SST (2-10MVA); (2) Load SST (3-phase and >100kVA); (3) Load SST (1-phase and 20kVA) – for all SST control functionalities including islanding, black-start and feeder level volt-var control and CVR (Conservation Voltage Regulation), in presence of DRERs and DESDs in looped feeder system.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM).

GEH - Cost-Benefit analysis for FREEDM System

Mesut E. Baran, Subhashish Bhattacharya, Alex Q. Huang
09/01/11 - 08/31/15

There are two main subtasks in this project:

ST1 (Baran): Benefit of Volt/Var control and Advanced protection on FREEDM systems.

This subtask aims at conducting comparative studies on a prototype FREEDM system in order to assess the effectiveness of Volt/Var control and System Protection on a FREEDM system as compared to a conventional system. This assessment can then be used to do cost/benefit analysis on the FREEDM systems.

Dr. Baran has been working on these two applications –volt/var control and system protection and has conducted preliminary assessment studies. To facilitate the assessment, basic benefits metrics have been defined. This task aims at conducting a more comprehensive benefits analysis by using the FREEDM system developed for LSSS testbed

This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM).

Green Energy Hub (GEH) Demonstration Year 7

David Lee Lubkeman, Subhashish Bhattacharya, Mo-Yuen Chow, Iqbal Husain
08/15/14 - 08/31/15

The Green Energy Hub testbed is an integrated hardware system demonstration incorporating technologies from the Enabling Technology and Fundamental Science research planes

This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM).

PowerAmerica Bhattacharya Task 4.11

Subhashish Bhattacharya, John F. Muth
12/01/14 - 01/31/16

Task 2.11 - PowerAmerica

This project is sponsored by NCSU PowerAmerica: Next Generation Electronics Manufacturing Innovation Institute.

CPS: Synergy: Collaborative Research: Cyborg Insect Networks for Exploration and Mapping (CINEMa)

Alper Yusuf Bozkurt, Edgar J Lobaton, Mihail L. Sichitiu
10/01/12 - 09/30/16

Autonomous navigation in unknown and dynamic environments has been a major challenge for synthetic mobile robotic agents. On the other hand, insects can easily solve such complex navigational problems and demonstrate remarkably stable and optimized locomotion skills in almost any environment. This project aims to develop a mobile sensor network where insects are used as mobile biological-robotic (biobotic) nodes. Insects, in fact, build a ?natural? sensor network through the use of their biological sensing organs and release of chemical, mechanical and optical cues to communicate the information to the rest of the group. In the scope of this project, a novel ?cyber-physical? communication network will be established among the individual insect in addition to the aforementioned natural one. For this, insects will be equipped with synthetic electronic sensors to sense additional cues, neuromuscular stimulation systems to direct the control of the insect and microcontrollers with radios to establish an RF link between the insects. This novel network will enable operation of insect biobots in complicated and uncertain dynamic environments for applications such as environmental sensing and search-and-rescue operations after natural disasters. The unique interdisciplinary nature of this project will help us to reach to younger generations and train them to be able to look at engineering problems from a cyberphysical systems point of view. Planned activities include development of lab modules and demos by undergraduate and graduate students to teach K-12 students and their teachers through our on-going collaborations with educational partners. These demos will also be instrumental during our nation level efforts to promote graduate education to underrepresented minority students.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

CPS: Synergy: Integrated Sensing and Control Algorithms for Computer-Assisted Training

David L Roberts, Alper Yusuf Bozkurt, Barbara Lynn Sherman
10/01/13 - 09/30/16

We are establishing two-way computer-mediated communication between working search and rescue dogs and their handlers. The vision is to bring novel CPS technology to bear on the problem of establishing more effective, reliable, and informative communication between dogs and humans in a variety of settings. To achieve this vision, we are developing technologies to monitor dogs' behaviors and emotions, send commands to dogs remotely, and monitor the environments the dogs are working in.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

Fiber Based Fabric Sensors

Alper Yusuf Bozkurt, Tushar K. Ghosh
08/01/15 - 07/31/17

Textiles constitute an obvious choice as multifunctional platforms, since they are worn and used to cover and drape over many of the surfaces around us. They are commonly used to provide protection in hostile environments. The present work proposes a systematic investigation into sensory characteristics of textile structures assembled from multicomponent fibers to produce fiber-based sensory textiles that are capable of generating measurable electrical response under various stimuli.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

Instrument to Co-register EEG and NIRS for Accurate Sleep Sorting

Alper Yusuf Bozkurt
09/22/14 - 08/31/16

A wireless miniaturized electro-encephalography and near-infrared spectroscopy system will be developed in the form factors of an adhesive bandage. This system will be used to sort sleep stages during all night sleep of healthy human subjects. The efficacy of the system will be assessed and bench-marked with traditional clinical measurements during sleep studies.

This project is sponsored by National Institutes of Health (NIH).

Low Power and Flexible Physiological Sensors

Alper Yusuf Bozkurt
09/01/12 - 08/31/15

The aim of this project is to provide nano-enhanced optical elements and a low power analog front-end application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) towards sub-milliwatt photoplethysmogram (PPG) and pulse oximetry to monitor key vital signs (i.e. arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate, and potentially blood pressure and respiratory rate).

This project is sponsored by NCSU Advanced Self Powered Systems of Sensors and Technologies (ASSIST) Center.

Modular Nanoengineering for the Future of Bits and Bytes

Alper Yusuf Bozkurt
11/01/13 - 10/31/16

The purpose of this grant application is to develop a course (Nanoengineering for the Information Age) that will ingratiate freshman and sophomore students with principle of operation of electronic devices that sense to collect information, actuate to transmit information, and store and process information. The aim of the subaward is to develop hands-on course modules to be embedded as laboratory applications to various existing courses in the Electrical Engineering curriculum at NC State. In the long run, these initial efforts and experiences will help to set-up the related facilities, bring the necessary logistics together and prepare the teaching assistants to be able to offer the proposed ?Nanoengineering for the Information Age? course as an independent class at NC State.

This project is sponsored by Cornell University.

Textile Integrated Sensors for Biomedical Monitoring

Tushar K. Ghosh, Alper Yusuf Bozkurt
07/01/15 - 06/30/16

Abstract: As a natural interface between humans and the environment in which we live, textiles offer tremendous surface area to functionalize and deploy sensors, actuators, and other devices ubiquitously and in relatively lower production costs to allow for electronic sensory textiles to enable novel cyber-physical systems towards Internet of Things. We have developed a strategically designed textile structure, assembled from co-extruded multicomponent fibers (CoMFi), to produce Fabric-based Integrated Sensing Technology (FIrST) that is capable of generating useful electrical response under various stimuli. The unique structural and material characteristics of CoMFi integrates sensing elements into the structure of the textile for concurrent real-time monitoring of biopotentials, tactile forces, moisture, temperature, hydration and detection of analytes in bodily fluids such as urine or sweat.

This project is sponsored by Chancellor's Innovation Fund (CIF).

NASA Aeronautics Scholarship Program

Gregory T. Byrd
09/15/14 - 09/14/16

NASA Research & Education Support Services scholarship for ECE student Kevin Holgado, $15,000 a year for two years; total $30,000

This project is sponsored by National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA).

A Measurement Based Framework for Dynamic Equivalencing of Large-Scale Power Systems Using Synchrophasors

Aranya Chakrabortty
09/01/10 - 10/31/15

1. To perform rigorous data analysis and information extraction from PMU data in order to implement the identi cation algorithms in real-time. The PI and his group have been provided with real PMU data from the US west coast grid by Southern California Edison, Inc., which particularly calls in for a signi cant amount of data analysis.

2. To develop a visualization software platform by which these algorithms can be presented in a visually attractive way to facilitate quick understanding of power system disturbance events by the system operators.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

CAREER: Wide-Area Control of Large Power Systems Using Distributed Synchrophasors: Where Network Theory Meets Power System Dynamics

Aranya Chakrabortty
03/01/11 - 02/29/16

This NSF-CAREER proposal strives for novel and transformative approaches to formulate, investigate and validate the almost untouched problem of wide-area damping control of large-scale electric power systems using synchronized phasor measurements. Following the US Northeast blackout of 2003, tremendous research efforts have been devoted to the visualization and postmortem analyses of Synchrophasors, leading to a formative understanding of how the Wide-area Measurement System (WAMS) technology may be used for dynamic health monitoring of complex power system networks. However, owing partly to a slowness in learning, and partly to a shortage of control system engineers in the WAMS community, no rigorous research has yet been done to transcend from monitoring to the next phase - namely, feedback control. With over 132 Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) currently operating in the US West Coast power system, and over 60 PMUs operating in the Eastern Interconnect, producing over 2 billion data samples per day, control by human operators is obviously not sustainable. An autonomous, highly distributed, bandwidth-efficient, real-time control system is needed to shape the oscillatory dynamics of these interconnections using Synchrophasor-feedback.

This project will make a step towards building such control systems, using concepts of nonlinear circuit theory, fundamental physics, and graph theory.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

Collaborative Research: Computational Methods for Stability Assessment of Power Systems with High Penetration of Clean Renewal Energy

Aranya Chakrabortty
08/01/15 - 07/31/17

This 2-year NSF project is a collaboration between MIT (main lead), NC State University, and University of Notre Dame. The main purpose of the project is to develop a suite of novel numerical computational algorithms by which very large complicated mathematical models of large power system networks can be constructed and solved in real-time, or even faster than real-time. The study will involve complex network models of power grids with high penetration of wind and solar power, and their associated stochasticity, and make use of new ideas from algebraic topology theory to develop solutions of those models. Validation will be done using the RTDS-WAMS testbed at FREEDM systems center.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

Collaborative Research: CPS: Synergy: Distributed Asynchronous Algorithms and Software Systems for Wide-Area Monitoring of Power Systems

Aranya Chakrabortty, Frank Mueller
10/01/13 - 09/30/16

The objective of this NSF-CPS Synergy proposal is to develop a distributed algorithmic frame- work, supported by a highly fault-tolerant software system, for executing critical transmission-level operations of the North American power grid using gigantic volumes of Synchrophasor data. As the number of Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) increases to more than thousands in the next 4-5 years, it is rather intuitive that the current state-of-the-art centralized communication and information processing architecture of Wide-Area Measurement System (WAMS) will no longer be sustainable under such data-explosion, and a completely distributed cyber-physical architecture will need to be developed. The North American Synchrophasor Initiative (NASPI) is currently address- ing this architectural aspect by developing new communication and computing protocols through NASPInet and Phasor Gateway. However, almost no attention has yet been paid to perhaps the most critical consequence of this envisioned distributed architecture - namely distributed algorithms. Our primary task, therefore, will be to develop parallel computational methods for solving real-time wide-area monitoring and control problems with analytical investigation of their stability, convergence and robustness properties, followed by their implementation and testing against extraneous malicious attacks using our WAMS-RTDS testbed at NC State.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

Development of a Multi-User Network Testbed for Wide-Area Monitoring and Control of Power Systems via Synchrophasors

Aranya Chakrabortty, Mesut E. Baran, Pam Page Carpenter
06/30/13 - 06/30/16

This project will develop an integrated research and educational framework for different applications of the Wide-area Measurement System (WAMS) technology. A combined research teaching laboratory will be developed where real-time digital simulators will be integrated with Phasor Measurement Units to create a hardware-in-loop simulation testbed, and artificial PMU data will be transmitted across NC State, Duke University and UNC Chapel Hill through a dedicated fibre optic communication network. Additionally, real PMU data from Duke Energy and Southern California Edison will be used to teach graduate students how wide-area monitoring and control algorithms can be developed in real-time using the WAMS-RTDS testbed.

This project is sponsored by US Dept. of Energy (DOE).

SEP Collaborative: Integrating Heterogeneous Energy Resources For Sustainable Power Networks - A Systems Approach

Aranya Chakrabortty
09/15/12 - 08/31/16

This project will take a unique approach in examining how management and control of large-scale and distributed energy resources can contribute to both stabilization and improving the performance of for power systems with high penetration of renewable energy. The research will involve a system theoretic end-to-end analysis from detailed characterization of the energy sources through propagation of these inputs through the power transmission and distribution network. An important aspect of the proposed research is the ability of this interdisciplinary team to examine not only the technical and physical system challenges but to include the related regulatory, policy and market challenges that must be dealt with in order to implement any proposed power system changes.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

SITARA: Smart Grids to Harness Satellite Based Virtual Power Plants for Energy Sustainability

Aranya Chakrabortty
03/31/15 - 03/31/17

This project looks at the novel concept of Virtual Power Plants (VPP) in urban cities. This is grouping of individual consumers who individually generate little amounts of electricity, for example with PV cells, but when taken as a group become a VPP producing more significant amounts of energy. A number of these virtual power plants, which could be at different cities, can also be grouped together to form a more significant power plant or a Virtual Power Network (VPN). The VPN can be treated in a similar way as individual power stations feeding into the grid. Growing urban cities naturally can favour such a development because of the density of consumers, and the availability of investment and existing infrastructure. In order for such VPPs to operate, there is a need to interpret information from many consumers, and then to determine the best way forward to meet peak demand which can lead to outages. Data analytics applied at various aspects of the grid will be needed. At the higher power network side, online measurements of voltage, current, active/rective power from different locations in the grid using GPS-synchronized sophisticated digital sensors called Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) can be utilised to reduce the impact of islanding and to improve transient stability.

This project is sponsored by University of Bradford.

Breakthrough: Collaborative: Secure Algorithms for Cyber-Physical Systems

Mo-Yuen Chow
07/15/15 - 06/30/18

The objective of this proposal is to formulate a novel methodology for creating secure algorithms in cyber-physical systems and to develop metrics for evaluating the security of composed systems. Cyber-physical systems are composed of interconnected, semi-autonomous devices. The inherently open nature of a CPS implies a susceptibility to attacks that differ fundamentally from conventional cyber attacks. CPS-specific attack vectors exist as purely cyber, cyber-enabled physical attacks, and physically enabled cyber attacks. As such, the endpoints may be fundamentally unsecurable (such as the sensed information from physical resources) or may be compromised (as in computational resources). Creating a secure communications channel between two nodes is inadequate if one of the endpoints of the communication is insecure. Therefore, new methodologies are needed to ensure that the system is protected in the presence of open information flows from physical resources and possibly malicious entities inside the system.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

Center of Excellence in the Area of Human and Robotic Structures Technologies for Lunar and Planetary Exploration

Matthew K. Ronning, Mo-Yuen Chow, Harvey T. Banks, Ashok Gopalarathnam, Vinod K. Saxena, Gregory D. Buckner, Mohammad Noori, Fuh G. Yuan, Jack R. Edwards, Fred R. DeJarnette, Robert T. Nagel
10/01/02 - 09/25/17

No abstract currently available.

This project is sponsored by National Institute of Aerospace.

Distributed Control of FREEDM System (former Distributed Grid Intelligence)

Mo-Yuen Chow
09/01/08 - 08/31/15

DGI/RSC is FREEDM’s “Operating System” providing resource management services to the IEM, IFM, and IPM and interfacing with SST. The composition of these diverse systems presents significant security challenges and vulnerabilities spanning beyond those of traditional network and cyber security. This project produces a set of security policies for FREEDM, a set of security rules to be enforced by “Security Mechanisms” or software/hardware/network protection code processes, and hardware features.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM).

EARS: Intelligent and Cross-Layer Attack and Defense in Spectrum Sharing

Huaiyu Dai, Peng Ning
01/01/15 - 12/31/17

Cognitive radio (CR) is emerging as a key enabling technology to address the ever increasing

demands on the scarce spectrum for wireless communications. While wireless networks are prone to security attacks,

CR networks are even more vulnerable due to improved intelligence available at attackers or compromised devices, and additional

constraints imposed on CR users. This interdisciplinary proposal aims at making contributions in the general area of security of wireless signals and systems in the context of spectrum sharing, to facilitate the realization of the national spectrum objectives in the years to come. In this project, instead of adding contributions to existing literature on software and wireless network security, we will focus on the vulnerabilities and attacks unique to CR functionalities, and advocate a cross-layer viewpoint for both attacks and defenses.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

Is Wireless Channel Dependable for Security Provisioning?

Huaiyu Dai, Rudra Dutta, Peng Ning
08/15/13 - 07/31/16

Wireless security is receiving increasing attention as wireless

systems become a key component in our daily life as well as critical cyber-physical systems. Recent progress in this area exploits physical layer characteristics to offer enhanced and sometimes the only available security mechanisms. The success of such security mechanisms depends crucially on the correct modeling of underlying wireless propagation. It is widely accepted that wireless channels decorrelate fast over space, and half a wavelength is the key distance metric used in existing wireless physical layer security mechanisms for security assurance. We believe that this channel correlation model is incorrect in general: it leads to wrong hypothesis about the inference capability of a passive adversary and results in false sense of security, which will expose the legitimate systems to severe threats with little awareness. In this project, we seek to understand the fundamental limits in passive inference of wireless channel characteristics, and further advance our knowledge and practice in wireless security.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

TC: Small: Defending against Insider Jammers in DSSS- and FH-Based Wireless Communication Systems

Mladen A. Vouk, Huaiyu Dai, Peng Ning
09/01/10 - 08/31/16

Jamming resistance is crucial for applications where reliable wireless

communication is required, such as rescue missions and military

applications. Spread spectrum

techniques such as Frequency Hopping (FH) and Direct Sequence Spread

Spectrum (DSSS) have been used as countermeasures against jamming

attacks. However, these anti-jamming techniques require that senders

and receivers share a secret key to communicate with each

other, and thus are vulnerable to insider attacks where the

adversary has access to the secret key.

The objective of this project is to develop a suite of techniques

to defend against insider jammers in DSSS and FH based wireless

communication systems. We will develop novel and efficient

insider-jamming-resistant techniques for both DSSS- and FH-based

wireless communication systems. Our proposed research consists of two

thrusts. The first thrust is to develop novel spreading/despreading

techniques, called DSD-DSSS (which stands for DSSS based on

Delayed Seed Disclosure), to enhance DSSS-based wireless communication

to defend against insider jamming threats, while the second thrust is

to develop a new approach, called USD-FH (which stands for FH

based on Uncoordinated Seed Disclosure), to enable sender and

receivers using FH to communicate without pre-establishing any common

secret hopping pattern. A key property of our new approaches is that

they do not depend on any secret shared by the sender and receivers. Our solution

has the potential to significantly enhance the anti-jamming capability of today?s wireless communication

systems.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

Geometric Phase Holograms and Related Films and Devices

Michael James Escuti
05/01/14 - 04/30/19

In this five-year program, the PI and team will broadly investigate Geometric Phase Holograms (GPH), Polarization Gratings (PGs), Multi-Twist Retarders (MTRs), and devices that integrate them.

This project is sponsored by ImagineOptix Corporation.

PECASE: Complex Polarization Gratings - Extreme Fresnel Zone Plates, Agile Vortex Beam Tools, and Enhanced Distributed-Feedback

Michael James Escuti
02/01/10 - 01/31/16

This request is to support one NCSU undergraduate student (Scott Gaffer, a rising, double-major senior) to work on research directly associated with the activities carried out by the PI under the currently funded grant.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

NeTS: Small: Distributed and Efficient Randomized Algorithms for Large Networks

Do Young Eun
08/01/12 - 07/31/16

Designing efficient and distributed algorithms has been central to almost all large networked systems. Examples include crawling-based sampling of large online social networks, statistical estimation or inference from massive scale of networked data, efficient searching algorithms in unstructured peerto-peer networks, randomized routing and duty-cycling algorithm for better performance-energy tradeoff in wireless sensor networks, and distributed scheduling algorithms leading to maximal

throughput and smaller delay in multihop wireless networks, to list a few. Except for small-sized, static networks for which centralized design is not much of an issue, virtually all large networks necessarily demand distributed algorithms for inherent lack of global information and also randomized algorithms for autonomous load balancing and their resilience/robustness against possible points of failure/attacks, yet often with close-to-optimal performance.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

Code-Modulated Interferometric Imaging with Phased Arrays

Brian Allan Floyd
07/01/15 - 06/30/16

Many materials are transparent at the millimeter-wave frequency range of 30-300GHz, and the small millimeter-scale wavelengths provides useful resolution for applications including hidden object detection, aircraft navigation, and biomedical imaging. Existing millimeter-wave cameras are bulky and expensive due to their reliance upon large focusing lenses and costly custom electronics. We have developed a technique which allows low-cost commercially-available millimeter-wave radio arrays in the 50 to 100 GHz frequency band to be reconfigured as a code-modulated interferometric imaging system. In so doing, the cost of the camera can be dramatically reduced allowing millimeter-wave cameras to find wider use in the marketplace. In this program, a hardware prototype will be constructed based on a commercially available 60-GHz radio system to which a new 60-GHz code-modulated receive beamformer will be added. Using this prototype, the imaging capabilities of the interferometer will be assessed and compared to a baseline scanned beam solution.

This project is sponsored by Chancellor's Innovation Fund (CIF).

EARS: Compact Adaptive MIMO Receivers

Brian Allan Floyd, Jacob James Adams, Brian L. Hughes
09/15/13 - 08/31/17

The goal of this project is use information-theoretic principles to design compact broadband multi-

antenna receivers that exhibit the best possible tradeoff between power and bandwidth efficiency.

Our overall approach is to develop antenna structures, matching networks and communication

algorithms that act in concert to maximize the capacity of the underlying wireless channel. Three

main topics are addressed: (a) design of novel, co-located antennas that seek to capture the most

informative modes of the incident electromagnetic field; (b) design of agile, adaptive broadband

antenna matching networks with the ability to optimize performance in the presence of frequency-

selective coupling and noise; (c) information-theoretic criteria to guide the design of antenna arrays

that maximize capacity of the resulting channel, and (d) communication and signal processing

algorithms that sense and adjust the matching networks to changing channel conditions.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

Radio Design for Mobile Millimeter-wave Broadband

Brian Allan Floyd
02/01/12 - 03/31/16

The available bandwidths at Ka band and V band enable gigabit-per-second communications for mobile millimeter-wave broadband networks using compact beamforming antenna arrays. In year 4 of this program, we will be building upon our previous work to realize a low-noise, power-efficient front-end at 60 GHz in SiGe BiCMOS technology with built-in test.

This project is sponsored by Samsung Research America Inc..

STTR Phase II: Fully-Integrated Tunable Filters Employing Synthetic Linear Interference Delay

Brian Allan Floyd
04/01/14 - 03/31/16

Circuit and radio front-end architectures leading to a universal channel selection filter for the 700-3000 MHz range will be developed. The filter will employ synthetic linear interference delay which provides frequency selectivity based on the creation of an interference pattern arising from delay and phase alignment between between parallel passive and active channels. Fully-integrated filter prototypes will be designed in silicon, including a high-accuracy phase shifter, a limiting amplifier, and low-noise tunable bandpass or notch elements.

This project is sponsored by Physical Devices LLC.

Collaborative Research: Planning Grant: I/UCRC for Advanced Electronics Through Machine Learning

Paul D. Franzon, William R. Davis, Brian Allan Floyd, Michael B. Steer
04/15/15 - 03/31/16

NSF training and seed money are sought to facilitate the successful development of an Industry-University Collaborative Research Center for Advanced Electronics through Machine Learning (CAEML). The primary objective is to hold a workshop for prospective industry members of CAEML and interested faculty, where the center’s initial research agenda would be formulated. This is a collaborative effort between UIUC, Georgia Tech and NCSU.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

CSR: Medium: Computing via Monolithic Three Dimensional Assembly of Novel Floating Gate Transistors and Thin Film Semiconductors

Paul D. Franzon, Veena Misra, Neil DiSpigna, John F. Muth, Eric Rotenberg
08/01/11 - 07/31/16

Work will be conducted on a new unified memory device.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

Faster than Real Time Simulation of Electromechanical Process of Large Scale Electrical Power Grids

Paul D. Franzon, Aranya Chakrabortty
12/15/14 - 12/14/15

In this project, faster than real time methods to simulate electrical grids will be investigated.

This project is sponsored by ABB, Inc.

Hardware Acceleration of Sparse Cognitive Algorithms

Paul D. Franzon
12/01/14 - 06/15/16

NCSU will conduct an ESL study to determine the scalability of hardware accelerators for cortical processors. Several new communications management schemes will be implemented

This project is sponsored by US Air Force (USAF).

Leveraging Commercial Flows for Heterogeneous Integration

Paul D. Franzon, William R. Davis, Brian Allan Floyd, Michael B. Steer
05/06/13 - 05/05/16

NCSU, Sandia and Mentor Graphics Inc. will develop thermal and stress management flows for heterogeneous 3DIC.

This project is sponsored by US Army - Research, Development and Engineering Command (RDECOM).

Modular, Testable, Tightly Coupled 3D Implementation of a Heterogenous Processor

Paul D. Franzon, William R. Davis, Eric Rotenberg
07/01/11 - 08/31/16

Implement a 3D Intel compatible processor

This project is sponsored by Intel Corporation.

SHF:Small:AC Powered Digital Circuits

Paul D. Franzon
08/01/14 - 07/31/17

The main goal of this project is to reduce the cost of RFID chips by eliminating most of the circuitry needed for managing the recovered power on the chip. This has potential to reduce the chip cost by about one-third. RFID chips are at the core of the tags stores typically attach to clothing and high end items – though they have a lot more uses beside this. The main technique employed in this project is to directly operating the circuits from the recovered wireless power. A new chip design technique has been identified for doing this and will be exploited and further explored in the project. This technique also has potential to increase the range at which the RFID tag can be powered. A successful outcome will open new market opportunities to use RFID.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

Electrostatic Chuck for Universal Tooling

Rachana Gupta
08/01/15 - 12/31/15

This project is initiated by Harris Corporation for a capstone program preferably multi-disciplinary between Electrical and Mechanical Engineering. This is going to be executed between Electrical Engineering Capstone course students and Mechanical Engineering (Independent Study / Summer research) students. The project is to begin in spring 2015 and will go through fall 2015 to finish in December 2015.

The goal of the project is to design electrostatic chuck to reduce the need for custom tooling and is capable of mating, de-mating, and re-mating a wide range of parts through a variety of manufacturing processes. The project will also design or identify portable high voltage power supply, perform optimization of design to maximize performance criteria,down select designs to meet criteria and budget, build, test and demonstrate prototypes.

This project is sponsored by Harris Corporation.

Packaging Development for PSD Testing and Optimized Inverter Configurations

Douglas C Hopkins
09/01/13 - 08/31/15

Primary goals are to demonstrate a high-efficiency integrated power stage for a 3-phase SST, explore advanced packaging techniques using additive manufacturing, and develop full-power testing capability for PSD SiC and GaN devices

This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM).

PowerAmerica: The Next Generation Power Electronics Manufacturing Innovation Institute

John F. Muth, B. Jayant Baliga, Subhashish Bhattacharya, Douglas C Hopkins, Iqbal Husain, Srdjan Miodrag Lukic, Ola L. Harrysson, Mehmet C. Ozturk, Veena Misra, Rogelio A Sullivan, Ewan Gareth David Pritchard, Dennis H. Kekas, Pam Page Carpenter, Alex Q. Huang
12/01/14 - 01/31/20

The Next Generation Power Electronics Manufacturing Innovation Institute - Power America

This project is sponsored by US Dept. of Energy (DOE).

Distributed Energy Storage Devices (DESD)

Srdjan Miodrag Lukic, Alex Q. Huang, Mo-Yuen Chow
09/01/13 - 08/31/15

The objective of the DESD Subthrust is to develop intelligent, modular, reliable, efficient, high power and energy density plug-and-play DESD to support the FREEDM and traditional grid energy storage applications

This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM).

Collaborative Research: Direct-drive Modular Transverse Flux Electric Machine without Using Rare-Earth Permanent Magnet Material

Iqbal Husain, Srdjan Miodrag Lukic
09/01/13 - 08/31/16

The objective of the proposed research is to develop compact, high torque density, energy-efficient, rare-earth-material-free electric machines for alternative energy and transportation applications using the concept of transverse flux (TF) paths. The unconventional ?ring? winding producing the homopolar MMF distribution in the airgap used in TF machines allows the increase of pole numbers without the reduction of ampere-turn per pole. This effective increase in current loading makes these machines highly suitable for high-torque, low-speed direct-drive applications. Design innovations in both machine concept and control algorithms distinguish the proposed permanent magnet (PM)-TF structure from those previously developed. The proposed concept has the potential to dramatically increase the torque and power density of electric machines without using rare-earth magnet materials whose cost has increased dramatically over the past five years due to highly limited availability.

The goals of this research will be achieved through the following steps: (1) Analyse the electromagnetic, structural and thermal behaviour of the proposed concept; (2) establish analysis, design and control optimization principles for PM-TF machines; (3) design and develop motor controller; (4) fabricate 50kW (peak) prototype; (5) test and analyse performance on an electric powertrain dynamometer; and (6) disseminate results through research publications. A Researcher from National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has agreed to advise the team and provide technical assistance during the course of this research program. An automotive electric drive manufacturer, US Hybrid, has agreed to provide engineering guidance during the design stage and to help fabricate the prototype.

The research efforts will be supplemented by a comprehensive educational plan built around this proposal. Three lecture/laboratory modules on alternative energy and transportation each to cover five weeks of a 3 credit course will be developed at NC State and University of Akron, and also disseminated to other Universities. Several graduate and undergraduate students will be trained through this project.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

ERC for Future Renewable Electric Energy Distribution and Management (FREEDM) Systems

Iqbal Husain, Ewan Gareth David Pritchard, Srdjan Miodrag Lukic, Wenye Wang, Mesut E. Baran, Mo-Yuen Chow, Penny Shumaker Jeffrey, Mark A. Johnson, Alex Q. Huang, Edward A. Baker
09/01/08 - 08/31/18

This proposal is to seek support for the hosting of a research workshop in October 2015. In this case, the FREEDM Systems Center is requesting $49,797 in supplemental funds to pay travel costs for 16 researchers to attend the workshop. The workshop is the first stage in a process to establish an enduring international research consortium between Ireland, Northern Ireland and the United States of America. The workshop will be designed to bring together a range of international experts in order to develop a common understanding of the challenges and emerging opportunities posed by the energy transition. This international research workshop will seek to identify a range of cost-effective, system-wide engineering solutions, and the principal outcome will be to identify common research needs in the area of high adoption rates of widely distributed renewable energy. As a result, collaborators will establish a research roadmap that establishes joint needs and could be used by the research partners to apply for trilateral funding at the end of 2015 or in early 2016.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

PowerAmerica Husain Task 4.12

Iqbal Husain, John F. Muth
12/01/14 - 01/31/16

Task 4.12 PowerAmerica

This project is sponsored by NCSU PowerAmerica: Next Generation Electronics Manufacturing Innovation Institute.

Scalable, Low-Cost, High-Performance Non-Rare Earth PM Motor for Hybrid Vehicles

Iqbal Husain
04/20/12 - 01/15/16

The project will evaluate and design a non-rare earth electric machine concept for electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The machine will use a standard traction inverter commonly used in traction applications. The design is based on an alternative configuration of swicthed reluctance machines that can use the standard inverter topology. A prototype machine will be designed and built based on DOE specifications, and tested on an electric dynamometer for validation of results.

This project is sponsored by GE Global Research.

SMC - Dynamic Modeling of FREEDM Layers with Distributed IPM control

Iqbal Husain, Alex Q. Huang, Aranya Chakrabortty, B. Jayant Baliga, Veena Misra, Mark A. Johnson, Douglas C Hopkins
09/01/09 - 08/31/15

The objective is to develop a comprehensive FREEDM system level model for system performance analysis, and controller design and evaluation to address one of the most critical concerns of the NSF SVT. A distributed or autonomous robust Intelligent Power Management (IPM) Control development is a key component of the controls initiative in Year 7.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM).

Switched Reluctance Machine and Controller Development for Electric Power Steering

Iqbal Husain
09/01/11 - 12/31/15

The objective of the project is to experimentally evaluate the three-phase switched reluctance machine (SRM) drive that has been developed and built for electric power steering (EPS) and then design the next generation machine.

This project is sponsored by Nexteer Automotive.

Function Accelerated nanoMaterial Engineering (FAME)

Ki Wook Kim
01/15/13 - 10/31/17

As a part of the UCLA led team, we will investigate two emerging physical systems/mechanisms capable of highly functional information processing beyond the current state of the art. The first task explores electronic properties of van der Waals materials and their heterostructures. Of primary interest is a system utilizing atomically thin tunnel structures and engineered density-of-states mismatch for ultra-high-speed operation in the terahertz frequencies and strong nonlinearity. The second exploits the possibility of inducing and controlling strongly correlated interactions between electronic and magnetic systems. Specifically, a layered structure consisting of non-metallic magnetic materials and low-dimensional semiconductors with large surface area, such as the van der Waals crystals, is the focus of investigation. The key concept utilizes the correlation between two materials through interactions at the interface, enabling modulation of one property through the other. Detailed theoretical analyses coupled with numerical modeling will be conducted to demonstrate the underlying physical concepts. Relevant metrics will be estimated to gauge the performance in realistic applications.

This project is sponsored by University of California - Los Angeles.

Modeling of Thermoelectrics

Ki Wook Kim
09/01/12 - 08/31/15

During the coming year, we propose to continue with two complimentary objectives, one long-term and the other more near-term, in the pursuit of high efficiency thermoelectric (TE) materials and devices. In the long term, the effort will be focused on achieving comprehensive understanding of fundamental electrical and thermal transport properties of lead chalcogenide and bismuth chalcogenide heterostructures through application of a multiscale modeling approach. Along with the effort on the active element of the system (i.e., TE materials and structures), our theoretical investigation will also be extended to the interfaces between the device and substrate (body) as well as at the other end of the TE unit (heat sink; ambient). One issue that will be studied as a part of our near-term objectives is the choice of metallic material to reduce the thermal contact resistance.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Advanced Self Powered Systems of Sensors and Technologies (ASSIST) Center.

South West Academy of Nanoelectronics (SWAN) 2.0: Charge/Spin Transport and Thermal Management in 2D Crystal Nanostructure Devices

Ki Wook Kim
04/01/13 - 12/31/17

As a member of SWAN (South West Academy of Nanoelectronics) 2.0 led by the Univ. of Texas at Austin, we propose to pursue two tasks in the development of next-generation low-power devices based on emerging 2D material systems including the topological insulators. In the first task, we will theoretically analyze carrier-phonon interaction dynamics and transport of excess heat/phonons in 2D materials and devices. In particular, a first-principles formalism based on density functional theory will be used to establish the intrinsic electron-phonon scattering rates in such candidate materials as transition metal dichalcogenides, silicene, germanene, and bismuth selenide, elucidating the extent of energy exchange in the surface states. At the same time, heat transfer across the layered 2D crystal heterostructures will be examined by using an atomistic thermal/phonon transport model. The second task will entail design and modeling of low-power high-functional logic devices that utilize the spin-momentum interlocked nature of carrier transport in the TI surface states. Particularly, the magnetoelectric effects caused by the neighboring magnetic layers will be the focus of investigation as the key device-enable feature in the topological insulator/magnet structures. Specific device concepts under consideration include magnetoelectric FETs and quasi-optic switches.

This project is sponsored by University of Texas - Austin.

Topological Insulator Hybrid Structures for Novel Optoelectronic Applications

Ki Wook Kim, Jagdish Narayan
08/15/13 - 07/31/16

The objective of this program is to exploit unique advantages of topological insulator based structures for optoelectronic applications. Specifically, the strong magnetoelectric interaction at the topological insulator-magnetic material interface and subsequent band engineering is the key focus as they can facilitate tailored response to an optical signal, offering an ideal environment for previously unattainable performances such as extreme sensitivity detection. The combined theoretical and experimental effort aims to achieve synthesis, fabrication, and analysis of novel topological insulator materials and layered heterostructures as well as demonstration of superior device functionalities.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

Topological Insulators for Novel Device Applications

Ki Wook Kim
08/05/13 - 08/04/16

This research program proposes to theoretically exploit the unique characteristics of topological insulator based structures for highly functional devices at room temperature. Utilizing the spin-momentum interlocked nature originating from strong spin-orbit coupling, the key focus is to achieve electrical control of both degrees of freedom that would provide an ideal environment to integrate electronics and magnetics into one nanoscale system. A number of innovative new concepts are put forth by judiciously employing hybrid structures formed with magnetic materials. Specific applications are pursued in three different areas ? multifunctional charge/spin current modulation, nonvolatile magnetic switching, and high sensitivity THz/far infrared detection. The investigation will encompass both the fundamental properties of topological insulators and the device modeling. In particular, first principles calculations will be employed for detailed understanding of the surface states and their interactions with the intrinsic and extrinsic sources. The basic operating principles of the envisioned devices will be analyzed with the development of physical models. Numerical modeling will follow to establish concrete designs as well as realistic estimates of performance specifications. If completed successfully, the proposed research can have significant potential impacts on room-temperature multi-functional spintronics, integration of magnetism with nanoelectronics, far infrared sensing technologies, etc.

This project is sponsored by US Army - Army Research Office.

A Computational Infrastructure for Algorithmic Implementation: A Step Closer to Theater Deployment

Hamid Krim
08/01/15 - 07/31/16

Big data epitomizes DOD application challenges which often invoke a wide array of measurement sensors, including Electro-optical, infra-red, 3D point-cloud sensors and others.

All these point to rich and persistent probing of environments and targets which also tend to fill up the ambient space, while the information lies in a low dimensional space. Exploiting the low dimensional information space, which is primarily the goal of many solutions, is one possible way of achieving efficient and important of an online ability to take full advantage of newly streaming data. While great computational efficiency is achieved by properly mapping the big data onto the information space, much work is required in both discovering the adapted maps, and accomplishing the computational capabilities for online processing. Our goal, in proposing this computational infrastructure, is to address some practical aspects of bringing some recently developed algorithms in Imaging and Machine Learning closer to practice and ready deployment. We have over the last five years, put in place, an array of sensors in our Laboratory, allowing us to make measurements and generate real data, and are now ready to attempt the next step of bringing our theoretical and algorithmic development closer to real world application and deployment with adapted computational resources.

This project is sponsored by US Army - Army Research Office.

A Computational Vision Approach to Insect Activity Analysis (previous title: A Computational Vision Approach to Insect Activity Analysis Hamid Krim and Itta Bluhn-Chertudi)

Hamid Krim
07/01/14 - 06/30/16

Insect vector-borne diseases affect more than one billion people worldwide. Vector control is one of the most effective means of preventing transmission of these diseases. No new classes of vector control have been developed in decades. Emergence of insecticide resistance to most chemical classes has been observed in diverse pest species and this has become a very serious concern worldwide. Thus, the development of insecticides with novel modes of action (MOA) is of utmost importance in controlling vector borne diseases. A key component for identifying new MOA is the ability to reliably test large collections of compounds for the desired effects again insects and/or destructive behaviors. At the moment in the research and development of insecticides, the rate limiting step to the discovery of new MOA against insects is the efficacy of biological assays and not the chemistry lead optimization process. We propose to build a high throughput screening platform to assess a large number of compounds for toxic, repellent and behavior altering effects that are not evaluated in current standard high throughput biological screening systems. Despite technological advances, no highly efficient insect population tracking system is available on the market that allows capture of their activity in order to characterize many of the chemical effects. We propose to design a platform which will enable us to efficiently and rapidly explore compound collections to unveil their full pest-management potential without the need to pre-filter compounds using other assays.

This project is sponsored by NC Biotechnology Center.

A Computational Vision Approach to Insect Activity Analysis for Drug Assessment (previous title: A Computational Vision Approach to Insect Activity Analysis Hamid Krim and Itta Bluhn-Chertudi)

Hamid Krim
07/01/14 - 06/30/16

Insect vector-borne diseases affect more than one billion people worldwide. Vector control is one of the most effective means of preventing transmission of these diseases. No new classes of vector control have been developed in decades. Emergence of insecticide resistance to most chemical classes has been observed in diverse pest species and this has become a very serious concern worldwide. Thus, the development of insecticides with novel modes of action (MOA) is of utmost importance in controlling vector borne diseases. A key component for identifying new MOA is the ability to reliably test large collections of compounds for the desired effects again insects and/or destructive behaviors. At the moment in the research and development of insecticides, the rate limiting step to the discovery of new MOA against insects is the efficacy of biological assays and not the chemistry lead optimization process. We propose to build a high throughput screening platform to assess a large number of compounds for toxic, repellent and behavior altering effects that are not evaluated in current standard high throughput biological screening systems. Despite technological advances, no highly efficient insect population tracking system is available on the market that allows capture of their activity in order to characterize many of the chemical effects. We propose to design a platform which will enable us to efficiently and rapidly explore compound collections to unveil their full pest-management potential without the need to pre-filter compounds using other assays.

This project is sponsored by SCYNEXIS, Inc.

Consortium for Nonproliferation Enabling Capabilities

Robin P. Gardner, John Mattingly, Yousry Y. Azmy, Hamid Krim, Nagiza F. Samatova, Alyson Gabbard Wilson, Ralph C. Smith, William A. Boettcher
07/31/14 - 07/30/19

NC State University, in partnership with University of Michigan, Purdue University, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Kansas State University, Georgia Institute of Technology, NC A&T State University, Los Alamos National Lab, Oak Ridge National Lab, and Pacific Northwest National lab, proposes to establish a Consortium for Nonproliferation Enabling Capabilities (CNEC). The vision of CNEC is to be a pre-eminent research and education hub dedicated to the development of enabling technologies and technical talent for meeting the grand challenges of nuclear nonproliferation in the next decade. CNEC research activities are divided into four thrust areas: 1) Signatures and Observables (S&O); 2) Simulation, Analysis, and Modeling (SAM); 3) Multi-source Data Fusion and Analytic Techniques (DFAT); and 4) Replacements for Potentially Dangerous Industrial and Medical Radiological Sources (RDRS). The goals are: 1) Identify and directly exploit signatures and observables (S&O) associated with special nuclear material (SNM) production, storage, and movement; 2) Develop simulation, analysis, and modeling (SAM) methods to identify and characterize SNM and facilities processing SNM; 3) Apply multi-source data fusion and analytic techniques to detect nuclear proliferation activities; and 4) Develop viable replacements for potentially dangerous existing industrial and medical radiological sources. In addition to research and development activities, CNEC will implement educational activities with the goal to develop a pool of future nuclear non-proliferation and other nuclear security professionals and researchers.

This project is sponsored by US Dept. of Energy (DOE).

Fusion and Modeling Algorithums (FUMA)

Hamid Krim
03/23/15 - 03/22/18

This work addresses a problem of space debris detection, and target parameters estimation from both optical and radar data. It aims at:

- A network-based experimental design to make measurement of existing debris

- Exploiting two or more sensing modalities, and fusing information of at least Optical and Radar measurements potentially made at geographically distinct locations, and enhancing the data for analysis

- Developing a Bayesian inference framework to overcome the diversity of tracks and targets

- The optical data will be captured by a 60 cm telescope which is at disposal to CTU Prague team. The radar measurements will be obtained from a Czech amateur radio astronomy network. The optical and radar measurement will be synchronized, i.e. the same orbiting object will be seen simultaneously in both sensor modalities.

This project is sponsored by US Missile Defense Agency.

Harness to Infer: A Case for Sensor Fusion

Hamid Krim
09/01/12 - 08/31/15

In data analysis, the amount of collected time series data over a period of time, and their variety can be staggering, i.e., sequence of observations via different sensor modalities. In addition to the importance of statistical correlations among the data, the extraction of causality has also been widely recognized as crucial. This causality information, which currently lies at the center of research and exploitation in health monitoring, may indeed be used both as a learning tool in trying to understand a patient’s health pattern and behavior, as well as a preventive/predictive tool advising a patient of changing environmental conditions, and thereby of taking a cautionary measure. Correlation of multiple streams of data, or also often referred to as information fusion, including physiological signals and environmental data will constitute the cornerstone for exploiting the ASSIST-­‐planned sensors, and will particularly greatly benefit of the results we have thus far obtained in very efficiently and robustly analyzing “wheeze” data, and some ECG data. In particular, as the environment sensing device measurements as well as other vital health data become available and the experiments get underway, the wealth of information will only be limited by one’s imagination, and one’s ability to coherently integrate it. This is clearly, an expedient way of distinguishing and of recognizing hazardous environmental conditions, with a full accounting of vital signs all available for inference and potential transmission.

In this year’s effort, we will adapt our developed highly efficient and robust analysis framework to possibly other physiological signal biomarkers from sweat, PPG, hydration level and body temperature (possible collaboration with Microsoft through student intern for data). We will particularly focus on signal artifact mitigation and sensor information fusion (stream correlation). This work will constitute the first step to a test bed deployment, and to potentially closer collaboration for full technology

transfer to hardware development.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Advanced Self Powered Systems of Sensors and Technologies (ASSIST) Center.

Interdisciplinary Distinguished Seminar Series

Hamid Krim
08/19/14 - 08/18/16

This project is sponsored by US Army - Army Research Office.

LAS DO5 Krim Task 5.6 Collaboration

Hamid Krim
03/24/15 - 12/31/15

This seminar is to engage the academic/industry/government research community and that throughout the world to share and disseminate their state of the art findings and discoveries to the University Community, the Triangle and the State region, as well the world through eventual online viewing of these seminars.

Guests' expenses will be partially covered by this grant and a token honorarium will be disbursed. This is to be used is complementary to an existing grant from ARO which also partially covers these expenses.

This project is sponsored by Laboratory for Analytic Sciences.

Minimax Compressed Sensing Reconstruction

Hamid Krim, Dror Zeev Baron
10/02/12 - 11/19/15

Compressed sensing is an emerging area where signal acquisition and reconstruction is possible for sparse and structured signals from a reduced number of measurements. The majority of compressed sensing research has focused on algorithms that are optimized to minimize the energy in the reconstruction error. We will instead focus on algorithms that can target a reconstruction that is optimized for any reconstruction metric, and in particular a minimax approach that minimizes the largest component-wise error.

This project is sponsored by US Army - Army Research Office.

A New Detector for Measuring Polarized Light: Modeling, Characterization and Testing for Significantly Improved Imaging Capabilities (Intrinsic Coincident Polymer Semiconductor Based Polarimeter)

Michael Kudenov, Brendan Timothy O'Connor
07/15/14 - 06/30/17

The students will each have independent research projects that are closely connected with the

project objectives, and will work closely along side the PIs and graduate student researchers.

Each project is briefly described below.

Project 1. Developing an organic polarimeter that will employ polymer-polymer heterojunctions

In the proposed research project, individual organic photodetectors, with polarized light

sensitivity, are being fabricated and characterized. Critical to the polarized light sensitivity is

alignment of the active conjugated polymer in the film. Currently the focus is on polymerfullerene

heterojunction structure where the polymer is the electron donor and fullerene is the

electron acceptor. To date, we have found this to be a highly effective design. However, we are

interested in replacing the fullerene with a second polymer. This will allow for increased

capabilities including broadened polarized light spectral sensitivity. This student will look to

make a polarized organic photodetector using two polymers with complimentary donor and

acceptor nature and spectral sensitivity – P3HT, and P(NDI2OD-T2).

Project 2. Developing patterning methods to achieve an organic photodetector pixel array.

A goal of the proposed research is to increase the pixel array resolution of a polarimeter

replacing the common division of focal plane array that stacks single polarized detectors laterally

resulting in a 4-detector super-pixel with one pixel with monolithically stacked detectors

(coincident detection). To demonstrate imaging capabilities, there is a need to develop additive

printing methods of the polarized light sensitive elements. This will require new transfer printing

methods. The REU student will focus on developing the capabilities of patterning the intrinsic

coincident detectors for imaging.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

BRAIN EAGER: Panoramic, Dynamic, Multi-Region Two-Photon Microscopy for Systems Neuroscience

Michael Kudenov
09/01/14 - 08/31/15

The goal of this project is to expand the field of view of a two-photon microscope. To this end, the proposed work involves creating a wide field objective and relay lenses the can accommodate a wide field of view.

This project is sponsored by UNC - UNC Chapel Hill.

Detection of Liquid Contaminants on Surfaces Using Hyperspectral Imaging (SBIR Phase II)(previous title: SENTRY LWIR Cold Sky Hyperspectral Imager for Liquid Contaminant Detection)

Michael Kudenov
04/28/14 - 12/24/15

Detection of chemical and biological substances at increasingly lower concentrations is of great concern for military vehicles driving through hostile areas. An ability to detect these contaminants, in liquid form on surfaces, would increase safety and capabilities for our soldiers. To this end, the project proposes to design and optimize a hyperspectral imaging sensor to detect these chemicals. The sensor will ideally operate in the long-wave infrared (8-12 micron) wavelength band. Furthermore, it will utilize cold sky reflectance to enhance the chemical's signature, which will likely be at the same temperature as the background.

This project is sponsored by SA Photonics.

Development of Sentinel Reporter Plants to Guide Efficient Screening of Germplasm and Management for Yield Improvement

Michael Kudenov, Colleen J. Doherty
07/01/15 - 06/30/16

Sentinel plants and animals have been used to provide biologically-based sensors for early detection and monitoring of “error states”. For instance, canaries are used as an early warning for methane detection, while sentinel chickens are used for early detection of West Nile virus. In this proposal, we will develop transgenic plants to behave as sentinels in response to environmental influences. Optical reporters will be selected, optimized, and tested using novel optical sensing techniques in daylight.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Research and Innovation Seed Funding Program.

Evaluation and Validation of New Sensor Technologies for Rapid Plant Phenotyping

Gary A. Payne, Rebecca S. Boston, Jeffrey G. White, Gail G. Wilkerson, Michael Kudenov, Ronnie W. Heiniger
04/15/14 - 07/01/16

North Carolina has the environmental and soil conditions that make it favorable for identifying the components of yield and stress responses and developing future high yielding maize genotypes. Research outlined in this proposal seeks to test new sensor technologies to more quickly and reliably identify genotypes with enhanced yield potential and establish baselines for next generation remote sensing.

Objectives:

1.Extensively phenotype hybrids N78S and N74R

2.Evaluate new sensors for plant phenotyping in a highly-monitored field trial

3.Generate a unique dataset combining sensor and management information with extensive season-long monitoring of soil, meteorology, plant growth, and nutrient status

4.Use these data to evaluate existing crop and soil models as potential aids in rapid plant phenotyping

This project is sponsored by Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc..

Field Deployable VNIR Linear Imaging Spectropolarimeter

Michael Kudenov
12/11/14 - 12/31/15

The objective of this proposal is to create a ruggedized imaging spectropolarimeter that can be used to measure the polarized spectral reflectance of objects in a remote sensing capacity. This device will be based on a currently existing hyperspectral imaging system that leverages off-the-shelf components to create a durable and easily fieldable sensor.

This project is sponsored by Sandia National Laboratories.

In Situ, Real-Time Monitoring of the Properties of Engine Part Coatings

Michael Kudenov
01/04/14 - 02/29/16

Thermal barrier coatings are used in all commercial and military jet engines to provide a buffer between the hot gasses in the engine and the metal framework. Currently, depositing reliable coatings relies on feedback that is assessed using destructive and inferred methods. However, a non-contact non-destructive method to measure a coating will vastly increase the coating's reliability. Therefore, an in-situ real time monitoring technique will provide direct feedback to ceramic coating processes, and will ultimately allow jet engines to perform more efficiently. The work proposed in this project is for the development of a non-contact optical sensor to measure thickness of thermal barrier coating deposition processes.

This project is sponsored by Control Vision, Inc..

Multi-scale Interrogation, Location, and Characterization of Defects Using Electro-Optic Techniques (Phase I) (previous title: Real-Time Imaging Polarimetry for High Throughput Defect Localization)

Michael Kudenov
12/15/14 - 09/14/15

High throughput quality control measurement methods are of critical importance for many fields, including agriculture, automobile manufacture, and the liquid crystal display industry. For instance, spectral imaging can quantify chemical identification and localization of compounds on surfaces. Meanwhile, polarimetric imaging can be used to quantify structural aspects of a surface, such as surface homogeneity related to roughness or intrinsic stress. The technology involved with this commercialization effort is focused on high-speed spectrally-resolved polarimetric imaging as applied to defect detection on exterior aircraft coatings. It is expected that defects, such as increased surface oxidization, cracking, or variations in surface roughness, can be attributed to quantifiable and repeatable changes in the spectropolarimetric reflectance of the surface. With the proposed technique, high speed automated detection of such defects can be spatially localized and relayed to technicians for repair, reducing costs and increasing the lifetime of aircraft parts and surfaces.

This project is sponsored by Control Vision, Inc..

Passive Snapshot Remote Imaging of Object Velocity

Michael Kudenov, Michael James Escuti
09/15/14 - 09/14/17

This proposal's central hypothesis is that naturally occurring narrow-band solar absorption features can be used to accurately and passively gauge the velocity, of hard-bodied exoatmospheric and terrestrial objects, with a single frame of data. A principle approach to testing this hypothesis will be to leverage novel heterodyning optical imaging techniques. To this end, the objectives of this proposal are to (1) identify optimal passive signatures to exploit for velocity sensing; (2) create optical and radiometric models for a new sensing architecture; (3) using the models, create an optical and mechanical design and investigate the design's tradespace; (4) fabricate a proof of concept; and (5) leverage the hardware to validate the hypothesis and modeling efforts. Impact is expected on multiple areas of the Air Force's goals, including covert estimation of an object's trajectory. Additional benefits can be realized in other areas as well, including classifying threats by velocity class and remote sensing of daytime fluorescence for chemical identification.

This project is sponsored by US Air Force - Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR).

Passive Standoff Super Resolution Imaging using Spatial-Spectral Multiplexing

Michael Kudenov
05/15/14 - 05/14/17

Optical imaging is fundamental and beneficial to many fields of research and science. It can provide non-contact quantification of objects or targets for diagnostic purposes, enable the observation of microscopic objects and organisms, and enable remote non-contact detection and sensing. However, imaging has always been limited in terms of spatial resolution. While many super resolution techniques exist to avoid this limitation, they require scanning near the object of interest or they require a priori knowledge of the target. This proposal addresses the development of a super resolution technique capable of standoff remote sensing.

This project is sponsored by US Navy-Office Of Naval Research.

Snapshot Imaging Spatial Heterodyne Interferometer (Phase II)

Michael Kudenov
09/18/13 - 08/28/15

Clutter reduction in infrared imagery is critical to identifying targets from background radiation. As applied towards detection of remote objects, a failed detection could yield loss of life. Alternatively, false detections produce wasted time and resources, and may make users complacent. Dual spectral band imaging has been applied to this problem; however, it still yields a high false alarm rate (FAR). In order to reduce the FAR, hyperspectral imaging may prove useful. To this end, the proposed work is aimed at developing a sensor to perform wide field-of-view imaging at a high spectral resolution, thus identifying important targets from background clutter with a reduced FAR.

This project is sponsored by SA Photonics.

Snapshot Retinal Imaging Mueller Matrix Polarimeter

Michael Kudenov, Michael James Escuti
08/01/14 - 07/31/16

While spectral imaging can often detect chemicals in a scene, polarimetry can sense structural effects. Thus, polarimeters have proven effective in the imaging of retinal tissues, and are able to sense tissue degradation due to early onset of ocular diseases, such as glaucoma and macular degeneration. However, current system architectures are limited by low temporal resolution and high cost. To address these concerns, this proposal focuses on the research and development of a new type of rapid snapshot imaging polarimeter that, for the first time, will be capable of real-time Mueller matrix imaging. The polarimeter will be developed for attachment onto a fundus camera to observe the efficacy of real-time full Mueller matrix measurements.

This project is sponsored by National Institutes of Health (NIH).

Snapshot Spatial Heterodyne Imaging Fourier Transform (SHIFT) Spectropolarimeter

Michael Kudenov, Michael James Escuti
06/12/14 - 06/11/17

With the continuing emergence of hostile nuclear threats comes an increasing need for handheld sensors capable of identifying surface chemicals. To meet handheld requirements, the size, weight, and power (SWAP) of optical imaging sensors must be significantly reduced. Additionally, these sensors must be solid-state and/or monolithic, require no mechanical scanning (no moving parts), operate in real time, and must function in harsh environments (e.g. vibration, temperature variations, and movement). The objective of this research project is to develop an ultra-compact snapshot spectropolarimeter. The sensor will be capable of passively interrogating surfaces for chemical signatures with a low SWAP hyperspectral and polarimetric imaging capability.

This project is sponsored by University of Arizona.

CPS: Synergy: Provably Safe Automotive Cyber-Physical Systems with Humans-in-the-Loop

Edgar J Lobaton
10/01/12 - 09/30/15

The automotive sector is one of the richest targets for emerging innovations in Cyber Physical Systems (CPS). Increased content electronics, non-contact sensors, controls and communication with the environment and the driver will change the way we drive and interact with our cars in the near future. However, despite the enormous number of fatalities and injuries on US and world roads, there is an enormous gap between research achievements in autonomous drive and the active safety systems currently available in production vehicles. We propose a paradigm shift which looks at whole cyber physical vehicle/environment/driver and thus address all its three main

critical components: (A) the vehicle/environment interaction, (B) the driver uncertainty and (C) the provably-safe intervention under the predicted uncertainty of A and B. We will develop a novel science for of Cyber-Physical Systems with the goal of obtaining a provably safe human-centric autonomy where certification is evidence-based and

evolves with the system (as new driver behaviors, scenes, slipping dynamics enter in the database of the CPS we construct in real-time). Robustness is measured against bounded state-dependent uncertainty of a driver/vehicle interaction model and of the scene reconstruction.

This project is sponsored by University of California - Berkeley.

Kinematic and ECG Monitoring for Human Activity Identification

Edgar J Lobaton
09/01/14 - 08/31/15

The advances in nanotechnology from the ASSIST center aims to develop devices that will revolutionize individual health and environmental monitoring. To achieve this objective, correlations between the physical state of individuals, communities, and other sensed data must be analyzed. In this project, the correlation between human activities, electrocardiography and kinematic motion will be studied. A hardware platform that incorporates ECG and inertial sensing will be designed to identify the current activity of an individual. The validity of the approach will be evaluated using the existing motion capture system from the PI. The emphasis of this project will be on energy-efficient algorithms that can be implemented in portable devices via the identification of robust low dimensional structures in the data. Furthermore, exploratory work will be performed to incorporate other sensing modalities such as temperature and hydration in the correlation analysis.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Advanced Self Powered Systems of Sensors and Technologies (ASSIST) Center.

Cybersees: Type II: Cyber-Enabled Water and Energy Systems Sustainability Utilizing Climate Information

Sankarasubraman Arumugam, Ning Lu, Joseph F DeCarolis, Gnanamanikam Mahinthakumar, Tushar Sinha, Sreerama Sreepathi
09/01/14 - 08/31/18

Continually increasing water demand (due to population growth) and fuel costs threaten the reliability of water and energy systems and also increase operational costs. In addition, both natural climatic variability and the impacts of global climate change increase the vulnerability of these two systems. For instance, reservoir systems depend on precipitation; whereas power systems demand depend on mean daily temperature. Currently, these systems use seasonal averages for their short-term (0-3 months) management, which ignores uncertainty in the climate, thereby resulting in increased spillage and reduced hydropower. While seasonal climate forecasts contain appreciable levels of skill over parts of the US in both winter and summer, the uptake of these forecasts for water and energy systems management has been limited due to lack of a coherent approach to assimilate probabilistic forecasts into management models. We systematically analyze various scenarios that aim at improving the performance of these systems utilizing the multimodel climate forecasts and a high performance computing (HPC) framework.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

Distribution Planning Criteria and Tools for Future Distributed Energy Resource Penetration Scenarios using Probabilistic Approaches, Core project for Center for Advanced Power Engineering Research (CAPER) led by Clemson University with NCSU being on

David Lee Lubkeman, Ning Lu
01/01/15 - 12/31/16

In this project, the team is developing distribution system planning criteria and associated tools for utility engineers for accommodating future integration of distributed energy resources (primarily distributed solar). These tools provide the utility the capability of modeling the impact of uncertain future DER penetration scenarios, quantifying the impacts of DER options and penetrations on distribution expansion and upgrade schemes.

This project is sponsored by Clemson University.

Energy Operation Model Development: Hydrological Model Integration

Ning Lu
09/01/14 - 08/31/15

This project requires a graduate student to work at Pacific Northwest National lab to complete the following tasks:

•Study the interdependency between water system and electricity sectors

•Develop framework for integrating water/gas system into production cost model

•Implement the proposed method in EOM

•Evaluate the tool by running analysis for different test cases and comparing the results conventional production cost tools, such as EOM without modeling water/gas, PROMOD, and PLEXOS.

This project is sponsored by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

Green Energy Hub - DGI-IEM Demonstration Industry Center Core Project

David Lee Lubkeman, Ning Lu, Alex Q. Huang, Mesut E. Baran, Subhashish Bhattacharya, Wenye Wang, Iqbal Husain
08/15/10 - 08/14/15

The Green Energy Hub testbed is an integrated hardware system demonstration incorporating technologies from the Enabling Technology and Fundamental Science research planes.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM).

Olney Town Center Microgrid Project

David Lee Lubkeman, Ning Lu, Srdjan Miodrag Lukic, Aranya Chakrabortty
11/21/14 - 10/31/16

The NCSU team is going to support the microgrid institute in setting up a test system for the microgrid demo site and study and analyze the microgrid controller design.

This project is sponsored by Microgrid Institute.

CPS: Synergy: Collaborative Research: Diagnostics and Prognostics Using Temporal Causal Models for Cyber Physical Systems- A Case of Smart Electric Grid

Srdjan Miodrag Lukic
10/01/13 - 09/30/16

Resilience to failures is an important requirement for cyber-physical systems such as Smart Grids that are an integral part of our infrastructure. They consist of tightly conjoined networks of physical components (including generation, transmission, and distribution facilities) interfaced with cyber components (including sensors, communication lines, computational software). Efficient models and online tools for understanding failure propagation and fault source isolation are necessary for building systems that are resilient to failures. Dynamic conditions resulting from varying physical system state such as power consumption, changing operational requirements, physical component degradation, software failures pose great challenges in achieving the desired reliability. We propose to develop (a) new methodology to build fault models for complex cyber-physical systems such as smart grid, (b) develop an integrated system-wide solution for isolating faults and identifying future failure propagation that takes into account the existing protection mechanisms designed into the system. This work will be performed in the context of transmission and active distribution systems of smart grid. However, we believe that this work can be extended to other cyber physical systems as well.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

PowerAmerica Lukic Task 4.13

Srdjan Miodrag Lukic, John F. Muth
12/01/14 - 01/31/16

Task 4.13 PowerAmerica

This project is sponsored by NCSU PowerAmerica: Next Generation Electronics Manufacturing Innovation Institute.

Promoting Academic and Career Success for Raleigh Future Scholars at NC State

Leda Lunardi, Montserrat Fuentes, Cheryl Parzel Cass, Tony L. Mitchell
09/01/13 - 08/31/17

We seek 76 scholarships over four years to establish a successful program in engineering disciplines for low income undergraduate students at NC State University. This project also includes students majoring in statistics. We will create a pathway through Raleigh Promise for the academically talented and economically disadvantageous student population with a Raleigh permanent address, increasing their opportunities for STEM careers. We have identified several activities in which scholars will have participation priority, including mentoring, career readiness, and educational incentives that have proven to be very successful in academic success. We are proposing to make all need-based scholarship awards the same annual amount of $5500. At the end of this project, we will have effectively increased the rate at which 76 STEM scholars have earned their degree, and built a more diverse and inclusive student population that interacts with and helps recruit new students entering NC State.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

Nanoscale Electronic and Energy Materials (NEEM) GAANN Program

Gregory N. Parsons, David E. Aspnes, Duane K. Larick, David A. Shultz, Veena Misra, Jon-Paul Maria
08/16/10 - 08/17/15

This project is sponsored by US Dept. of Education (DED).

Nanoscale Electronic and Energy Materials (NEEM) GAANN Program

Gregory N. Parsons, David E. Aspnes, Duane K. Larick, David A. Shultz, Jon-Paul Maria, Veena Misra
08/16/12 - 08/15/15

Through interdisciplinary doctoral education in Nanoscale Electronic and Energy Materials (NEEM), North Carolina State University (NC State) proposes to increase its commitment to interdisciplinary graduate training in electronic and energy materials related to nanotechnology. This interdisciplinary field comprises several areas designated by the GAANN Program as critical to national need: Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Chemistry, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering, and Physics. Our goal is to enlarge the pool of U.S. citizens and permanent residents who pursue teaching and research careers in nanoscale electronic and energy materials, thereby developing the academic and research infrastructure and increase U.S. competitiveness.

This project is sponsored by US Dept. of Education (DED).

PowerAmerica Misra Task 2.81 and 2.84

Veena Misra, John F. Muth
12/01/14 - 11/30/15

Task 2.81 and 2.94 PowerAmerica

This project is sponsored by NCSU PowerAmerica: Next Generation Electronics Manufacturing Innovation Institute.

Phase II: Growth, Characterization and Doping Processing for MgZnO by MOCVD Using Real-Time Spectroscopic Elipsometry

John F. Muth, David E. Aspnes, John E. Rowe
09/29/14 - 09/28/16

We propose to use MOCVD to grow doped MgZnO films on sapphire c-plane substrates. Characterization by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are used to determine the film quality and Mg composition.

This project is sponsored by Agnitron Technology, Inc..

SBIR Phase II: Tethered Membranes For IR Sensor

John F. Muth
12/21/12 - 12/20/15

This project implements a MEMs sensor that may be used for infrared sensors that can be used for military or industrial applications.

This project is sponsored by New Jersey Microsystems, Inc.

An Ultrasound-Based Noninvasive Neural Interface to the Retina

Omer Oralkan
08/01/13 - 07/31/16

We propose to develop a conformal miniaturized high-frequency ultrasound transducer array integrated with supporting electronics, to be formed in the shape of a contact lens. This proposal is based on our recent preliminary experimental results showing that the retina responds to focused ultrasound in a similar way to its natural stimulus, light. The proposed device will be designed to project desired ultrasound patterns for direct stimulation of neural circuits in the retina. Such a device has many potential applications including possible enhancement of vision, overlaying patterns on the visual input, or as a prosthetic device to restore vision in blind patients with regenerative retinal disease.

This project is sponsored by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).

Mechanically Resonant Chemical Sensor Arrays Based on Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers

Omer Oralkan
09/01/13 - 08/31/15

The main objective of the proposed project is to develop a highly sensitive gas sensing system based on a mechanically resonant mass-­‐loading sensor coated with selective functionalization layers. The mechanical resonator of choice is a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT), which is suitable for array implementation and achieves a high quality factor enabled by a vacuum cavity on the backside of a vibrating plate structure. The array approach is especially important to achieve high selectivity by functionalizing different elements of the array with different polymers. Our target analytes are volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

This project is sponsored by NCSU Advanced Self Powered Systems of Sensors and Technologies (ASSIST) Center.

Nonplanar High-Frequency Wideband Ultrasonic Transducer Arrays

Omer Oralkan
01/01/14 - 12/31/16

Technological difficulties associated with high-frequency (>20 MHz) transducer arrays have prevented wide adoption of high-resolution imaging systems for many decades. The major technological hurdles for the development of high-frequency arrays have been related to the conventional manufacturing techniques used for piezoelectric transducers. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays showed over the last decade a great promise for the implementation of high-frequency arrays. In this pilot study we aim to develop novel CMUT designs and fabrication approaches to demonstrate high-frequency (40 MHz and 60 MHz center frequency) wideband (>100% fractional bandwidth) transducer arrays with a curvature in the elevation direction to achieve lensless elevation focusing.

This project is sponsored by National Institutes of Health (NIH).

Bridging Mathematics Contents to Engineering Contexts; Just-In-Time Assessment and Review Modules

Hatice O. Ozturk, Alina Nicoleta Duca, Henry J. Trussell
09/01/13 - 08/31/16

This project is designed around the new learning-based engineering education paradigm where the students work hard at learning while the mentor listens and guides. ?The guiding? is done on a technology platform according to the needs of the students which are assessed with questions at various levels of difficulty. The instructional design of this technology platform is done by a strong collaboration of mathematicians and engineering educators supported by the instructional software experts. The main goal of the project is to bridge the gap between math education of engineering students and their ability to apply this knowledge and skills in their engineering courses in a way that uniquely meets the needs of the students. Prerequisite math knowledge and skills are introduced as they are needed and in contexts that they will be used with the help of custom created Just-in-Time Assessment and Review modules. Preliminary results show that the proposed approach effectively increases the math preparedness of engineering students and results in improved achievement of course instructional objectives.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

High Performance Thermoelectrics

Mehmet C. Ozturk
09/01/12 - 08/31/15

This project aims at developing flexible thermoelectrics devices to harvest energy from the human body. Two approaches are being considered. In the first approach, a flexible package is developed to integrate thermoelectric legs grown by an epitaxial growth technique. In the second approach, polycrystalline thermoelectric materials are grown selectively in a flexible package. The ultimate goal is to integrate these devices on a flexible platform such as a wristband.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Advanced Self Powered Systems of Sensors and Technologies (ASSIST) Center.

MRI: Acquisition of an Electron Beam Lithography System for the NCSU Nanofabrication Facility

Mehmet C. Ozturk, Veena Misra, Michael D. Dickey, Robert Riehn, Steven Allan Soper
09/01/12 - 08/31/15

Funds are requested to acquire an electron beam lithography system. The instrument will be located in the NCSU Nanofabrication Facility and it will be available to the facility's user base on a first come first served basis. The proposed instrument will be able to write patterns with a resolution of 10 nm or better, it will be able to accept wafer sizes up to 6 inches and it will be able to function as a scanning electron microscope.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

NSF Nanosystems Engineering Research Center (NERC) for Advanced Self-Powered Systems of Integrated Sensors and Technologies (ASSIST)

Veena Misra, John F. Muth, Melissa G. Jones, Mehmet C. Ozturk
09/01/12 - 08/31/17

Advanced Self-powered Systems of Integrated Sensor Technologies (ASSIST) vision is to be a dynamic leader in development of wearable, self-powered integrated sensor technologies for continuous health and environmental monitoring. These technologies will directly respond to NAE?s Grand Challenge to advance health informatics to improve acquisition, management and use of health information to enhance medical care, correlate disease and environment and revolutionize response to public health emergencies, disasters, pandemics and/or chem-bio attacks. ASSIST?s mission is to transform US and global health informatics, electronics and biomedical engineering industries through development and demonstration of fundamental and enabling nanotechnologies for energy harvesting, battery-free energy storage and ultra-low power computation and communication, integrated with physiological and environmental nanosensors and biocompatible materials, to empower personal environmental health monitoring and emergency response. Goals: 1. Advance discovery in energy harvesting and storage, multifunctional sensors and materials, and low-power systems design; 2. Develop enabling technologies for energy conversion, device reliability and ultra-low power computation and communications, with integration to achieve two 1st-generation test-beds: self-sustaining wireless nodes and conformal multifunctional applications; 3. Develop systems integration requirements and demonstrate ?Exposure Track? and ?Emergency Track? testbeds; 4. Develop efficient and secure methods to handle large quantities of data and retrieve patterns of environmental and health correlations; 5. Create a culture of team-based research, education and innovation, cultivating a diverse group of talented, well prepared graduates excited about research, design and production of health informatics and biomedical engineering solutions to improve global health and safety; 6. Form partnerships with precollege institutions to strengthen the STEM pipeline by helping middle and high school students and teachers develop technical literacy and motivation to contribute to solving NAE Grand Challenges; 7. Stimulate entrepreneurship and form sustainable partnerships with small and large firms, health practitioners and emergency responders to link ASSIST discoveries to innovation, accelerated commercialization and job creation. ASSIST integrated sensor technologies will result in a wearable health patch that incorporates energy harvesting and storage, computation and communication, along with low-power integrated sensors for health and environmental exposures. This will be the platform technology that will drive two systems applications related to global health. The first, the Exposure Track, will enable longitudinal, simultaneous monitoring of environmental factors and human health parameters to create an unprecedented set of data to lead to direct understanding of how environment impacts health. This information, of great interest to EPA and CDC, will revolutionize our understanding of environmental health and may impact future regulatory policies. The patch?s self-powered nature will enable critical longitudinal monitoring. This system will involve epidemiologists, social scientists, data mining, pattern recognition professionals and EPA scientists to further understanding of environmental health. The patch will also drive a second system, the Wellness Track, which will aim to empower patients to take charge of their own health by having readily accessible information about their health status. According to the Milken Inst., lifestyle diseases consume 70% of the US?s health care resources and face an unsustainable future in light of rising health care costs. It has been shown that humans are more likely to change lifestyle habits if they witness real-time, positive changes in their health as a result of those changes. The Wellness Track will provide an unobtrusive, battery-free interface for sensing of multiple vital signs, along with advanced and secure communication strategies to share information with medical practitioners, parents, caregivers for the elderly or self-monitoring applications for cell phones and computers. The battery-free nature of the patch will provide a maintenance-free solution to assure long-term use. The Wellness Track will also create an information source to address public emergencies, employing a Rescue Mode to help first responders locate and prioritize live victims in emergency situations. The main role of Rescue Mode is to act as a self-powered, battery-free electronic beacon that transmits limited but critical vital information on survivors: location, vital status and physical stress during the initial golden hour following emergencies. Its self-powering feature can lead to unlimited signaling, positioning the technology to revolutionize global emergency response and significantly reduce rescue time and resources.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

PowerAmerica Ozturk Task 2.9: Device and Process Flow Development for WBG Training and Foundry Operations

Mehmet C. Ozturk, John F. Muth
12/01/14 - 01/31/16

No abstract currently available.

This project is sponsored by NCSU PowerAmerica: Next Generation Electronics Manufacturing Innovation Institute.

Development of Ga2O3 Based Structures for High Power Applications

Tania M Paskova, John F. Muth
08/01/15 - 07/31/18

The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing Ga2O3 based structures for power applications. We intend to explore several growth approaches, aiming to achieve epitaxial structures of high quality. The expected strong potential of this material for producing high power devices will be explored by developing structures with controllable doping.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

GOALI: Thermal Transport in AlGaN Alloys: Effect of Point and Structural Defects

Tania M Paskova, John F. Muth
08/15/13 - 07/31/16

The objective of this proposal is to perform a basic study of thermal conductivity of AlGaN alloys in the entire composition range with variable defect density achieved by using growth on different substrates and to explore the role of point and structural defects on the thermal transport in these materials.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

III-Nitride LED Structures on Sidewall Grown Semipolar Facets

Tania M Paskova, John F. Muth
07/01/12 - 06/30/16

This is an International Collaboration Supplement (ICS) request in conjunction with our NSF project # 1207075 titled "III-Nitride LED structures on sidewall grown semipolar facets", aiming to bring an additional strong scientific component that could leverage the success of the current program. The supplement will also enhance a productive on-going international collaboration with a spectroscopy group from the Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

IRES: U.S.-Czech Research Experience for Students on Wide Bandgap Materials for Energy and Biosensing Applications (IRES: Wide Bandgap Materials for Energy and Biosensing Applications)

Tania M Paskova, Albena Ivanisevic
08/01/15 - 07/31/18

This program for International Research Experience for Students (IRES), will provide U.S. undergraduate and graduate students from NCSU with early career research experience at the Institute of Physics, Academy of Science at Czech Republic (Prague). During focused six-week summer programs, IRES participants will be involved in materials science and will gain hands-on experience with advanced characterization of wide bandgap materials for energy and biosensing applications.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

Workshop: 8th IW on Bulk Nitride Semiconductors: Growth Properties and Devices, to be held in Bavaria, Germany, Sept.30-Oct.5, 2013

Tania M Paskova
10/01/13 - 03/31/16

The proposed project seeks financial support to US women and young researchers to attend the 8th International Workshop on Bulk Nitride Semiconductors to be held in Bavaria, Germany, Sept.30 - Oct.5, 2013.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

Advanced Diffractive Element For Thz Beam Control

David Ricketts
03/25/15 - 12/30/16

This research will investigate radar sub-reflectors using optical modulation of Si carriers.

This project is sponsored by Vadum Inc..

CAREER: Spin-Torque Oscillator Arrays

David Ricketts
12/23/12 - 12/31/16

This research investigates magnetostatic spin-wave generation, propagation, interaction and absorption in multi-layer Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) and Tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) spin-torque oscillator (STO) arrays. With the recent demonstration of spin-torque transfer and self-sustained oscillators, a new class of oscillator has emerged with extreme tunability and potential for excellent RF performance. Recent results have shown, however, that the potential of these new devices is limited by the large phase noise of individual devices due to the small amount of energy stored in a single device. A potential solution is the phase-locking of many STOs in a large array. This research focuses on the fundamental science of STO-STO interaction in multi-device arrays with the goal of laying the foundation for controllable, scalable arrays of STO oscillators. Specifically, this research proposal focuses on three tasks investigating fundamental science of spin-wave STO interaction: 1) Study of magnetostatic surface wave dynamics on multi-layer STO stacks, 2) Study of magnetostatic surface wave stimulated emission by an STO, and 3) Spatial dependence and scaling of STO-STO interactions.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

Collaboration on Spin-Torque Oscillators and Diodes

David Ricketts
02/01/14 - 03/31/16

This is a Collaboration between NCSU and AIST Japan on Spin-Torque Oscillators and Diodes. The collaboration will consists of sharing joint test results and ideas on the fundamental physics, operation and measurement of spin-torque devices.

This project is sponsored by National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST).

Multi-watt, Efficient, All-Silicon Power Amplifiers: MESPA

David Ricketts
09/02/13 - 09/01/15

Development of high-power, Power Amplifiers for high-speed communciation.

This project is sponsored by US Army.

Near Frictionless Surface Acoustic Wave Active Bearing for Disk Drive and Other Applications

David Ricketts
12/15/12 - 08/31/15

This research investigates a novel mechanical interface which utilizes surface acoustic waves (SAW) for lubrication. In this concept, SAW?s are used to realize a direct contact interface with zero effective friction between two surfaces sliding at high relative velocities. If a traveling SAW is excited on one of the two surfaces moving relative to one another, and the contact points, which are the peaks of the traveling SAW, have the same horizontal velocity as the relative velocity between the two surfaces, the contact points will not experience any friction. The creation of zero-sliding-velocity contact points minimizes effective friction without applying any lubricants and, as a result, enables a host of new applications. This is the converse effect to ultrasonic motors, which use SAW?s to create friction forces between two surfaces. This concept in essence is an active mechanical bearing.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

SHF: Small: Design for Competitive Automated Layout (DCAL) of Mobile Application Processor

Eric Rotenberg
08/01/12 - 07/31/16

For two decades, personal computers and servers have been powered by increasingly sophisticated superscalar processors. The last few years has even witnessed the introduction of superscalar processors into smart phones and tablet PCs, in order to provide richer user experiences. There are important trends in both domains: server-class processors require unsustainable design effort, as evidenced by a select few, highly trained, large design teams in industry proliferating superscalar processors; mobile devices are evolving at an extraordinary pace. These trends suggest it is time to take a radical departure in the way superscalar processors are designed. In particular, the PI proposes superscalar processor design automation. This project explores challenges and solutions at key levels: (1) automatic FPGA-based processor-in-system exploration, (2) efficient and automatic ISA/microarchitecture decoupling, (3) automatic RTL generation via a superscalar design language, and (4) a low-effort physical design strategy and alternative to custom design.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

SHF:Small: AnyCore: A Universal Superscalar Core

Eric Rotenberg
09/01/10 - 08/31/16

Different applications achieve their highest performance on different processing hardware. The goal of this project is to design a universal computer architecture that can achieve the same effect as custom-fabricating the optimal processing hardware for arbitrary application behaviors.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

SHF:Small: EXACT: Explicit Dynamic-Branch Prediction with Active Updates

Eric Rotenberg
09/15/09 - 08/31/15

Continued microprocessor performance scaling is hindered by many factors. One factor above all, the branch prediction bottleneck, constrains the ability to tackle other factors. This project proposes a new direction in branch prediction research.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

Streamlining Control-Flow

Eric Rotenberg
01/01/11 - 12/31/17

This project comprehensively addresses the control-flow problem in high-performance processors, to significantly improve their performance and energy efficiency.

This project is sponsored by Intel Corporation.

A Password System Based on Sketches

Wesley E. Snyder, Wenye Wang
08/12/11 - 08/11/15

Access control and user authentication are key elements for protecting information systems. Access control and protection from the insider threat has been identified as one of the most significant issues in information assurance. In many Army missions, keyboards and card readers may not be available; however, the soldier may be using a hand-held communication device with a touch-sensitive screen. In such a scenario, drawing a simple sketch is likely to be the most ecient and e ective mechanism for access control. The soldier in the tactical environment will be provided with an easy-to-use, high reliability access control mechanism.

The text-based password has been a longtime mechanism for users to gain access to

information system such as computers or network access. However to maintain security, users have been burdened with stringent password rules, such as password length and the use of special characters. Multiple passwords for di erent systems and frequently expiring passwords make the use the passwords a nightmare for many users. This frequently results in security risks, as users write their passwords down and use the same password on many systems. To overcome the burdens of password systems, the authors propose to develop a novel method for computer-access security, allowing the user to draw a simple sketch as his/her password. In this project we will develop a new sketch recognition algorithm, based on the PIs prior successful work in shape recognition. The new sketch based password system will be implemented and evaluated.

The user desiring access (referred to as the artist hereafter), will draw a sketch on a

digitizer pad or touch-sensitive screen (e.g. iPad). The sketch will be matched to a data base of sketches. The principal innovation of the proposed algorithm is treating the sketch as a function of time, and using local measures of that function as parameters for the shape-recognition algorithm, SKS.

This project is sponsored by US Army - Army Research Office.

SHF:Small:Towards a Versatile Analytical Modeling Toolset for Evaluating Memory Hierarchy Design

Yan Solihin
08/01/11 - 07/31/15

Today, the primary tool used for evaluating future computer system designs is simulation, where each machine instruction and its impact on processor and memory state are simulated in great details. While powerful and versatile, processor simulation is exceedingly slow: roughly four to five orders of magnitude slower than native execution. Unfortunately, in the future, solely relying on processor simulation will be too constraining, due to increasing cache sizes that requires longer simulation time, increasing use of hypervisor or user-level virtual machines that need to be simulated as well in addition to the Operating System, increasing number of cores on chip that result in longer simulation time, and increasing occurrence of multi-programmed and multi-threaded workload.

Analytical modeling is an attempt to capture fundamental relationships between various parameters of a design and to capture how they affect performance or power/energy consumption. An analytical model is much faster to run and can be reasonably accurate. Unfortunately, widespread use of analytical models have been hampered by the lack of widely available toolset that researchers can use and build upon, and the high barrier of entry into using and developing them. The objective of this proposal is to integrate various disparate analytical models into a single toolset that can be used by researchers for computer architecture design and evaluation. The expected outcome of this project is a tool that aids processor simulation through three important roles: providing ability to reason about what parameters determine the outcome of a performance phenomenon, discovering insights into how architecture parameters fundamentally relate to one another, and providing first-order approximation that allows narrowing down the search space for simulation studies. The impact of this project is that it enables computer design and evaluation to be improved significantly in terms of quality (deeper insights can be obtained), as well as resource efficiency (less simulation time is required to arrive at the same observations).

The project has the following components. One component is analysis of various analytical models in order to characterize their input, output, key techniques, and assumptions. Another component is common denominator analysis and model integration analysis, in order to identify common denominators of various models. The third component is a support infrastructure for the models. The fourth component is a toolset that integrates the analytical models, benchmarks, profiling tools, documentation into a software package that the community can use through an easy-to-use and intelligent interface. The final component is integration of the project into existing courses, with an emphasis on classroom materials suitable for undergraduate course. These materials will be made available for public download, and community enhancement and extension.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

Sound and Electromagnetic Interacting Waves (MURI)

Michael B. Steer, Mohammed A. Zikry, Hamid Krim, David Schurig
08/01/10 - 12/31/15

This project will develop the basic science of acoustic and electromagnetic interactions leading to the engineering of new sensors that can exploit the knowledge that these interactions provide about the environment. Stand-off probing of surface and buried objects using acoustic probes is complicated by the poor knowledge of nonlinear and diffusive acoustic effects. Great insights, including differentiation of objects, can be obtained by exploiting nonlinear acoustic interactions and by exploiting long-tail effects resulting from acoustic diffusion inside an object. The overall concept is to develop the fundamental knowledge enabling the development of a tricorder-like device for interrogating the environment thus contributing to total situational awareness

This project is sponsored by US Navy-Office Of Naval Research.

Time-Frequency and Non-Laplacian Phenomena at Radio Frequencies

Michael B. Steer
09/30/12 - 09/29/15

Recent phenomenological investigations of the fundamental limits to the performance of radio, radar and sensor systems have revealed radio-frequency (RF) interference effects that do not have the expected integer calculus descriptions. Some of these effects derive from electro-thermal diffusive interactions and it is believed that many other effects similarly derive from diffusion. Also, time-frequency effects have been discovered in which the temporal response of electronics excited by a pulsed RF signal is significantly longer than linear frequency-domain analysis would imply. It is believed that these derive from diffusion-like effects as well and require fractional calculus. The project?s premise is that using integer calculus-based analysis has resulted in sources of interference in RF systems being missed. This project investigates the underlying physics of diffusive RF phenomena. Time-domain fractional calculus-based descriptions transformed into the frequency-domain become non-Laplacian (i.e. non-integer-based). However, conventional analysis of RF structures is based on integer-based Laplacian frequency-domain analysis derived from integer calculus. The project extends the engineer?s RF analysis toolkit to include non-Laplacian models and abstractions. The work will lead to new paradigms for understanding interference at RF, for enhancing RF systems, for deriving fundamental limits of performance at RF, for developing signatures, and for manipulating RF electronics.

This project is sponsored by US Army - Army Research Office.

A Digital Camera Based Method for Color Quality Control of the OCP Camouflage Fabrics

Renzo Shamey, Henry J. Trussell
09/23/13 - 09/22/16

The present proposal has the objective to develop, validate and implement an imaging system for the color quality control and assessment of Operation Enduring Freedom (OCP) camouflage substrates.

This work comprises the following main components:

1) Obtaining a statistically valid set of pass and fail responses for a large set of camouflage substrates from a group of expert color assessors that repeat their judgments on multiple trials which will be used to train the system.

2) Developing a numerical algorithm based on an imaging technique that utilizes the above visual criteria to establish instrumental acceptability boundaries.

3) Comparison of the performance of the numerical models used in the imaging techniques against visual judgments for a new set of test samples.

4) Prediction of P/F judgments for a variety of substrates. In order to improve the effectiveness of the proposed technique, different types of material (woven, knitted, nonwoven, & different blends) that are commonly utilized in the production of camouflage material in different sectors, should be made available to be visually rated and to train the system.

This project is sponsored by US Army.

CSR:Small: A Practical Data Dependence Profiler for Program Characterization and Optimization

James Tuck
10/01/13 - 09/30/16

We'll design an infrastructure that leverages a fast and accurate DDP for characterization and optimization.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

Exploring Cross-Layer, Integrated Approaches for Improving the Reliability of Heterogeneous Multicore Processors

James Tuck
04/01/13 - 03/31/16

This project, just underway, is exploring cross-layer techniques for improving system reliability due to hardware faults in future processors and software. Given the cross-layer nature of this project that includes cooperative hardware and software techniques, it provides an exceptional opportunity for undergraduate students to gain a deep knowledge of computer systems that spans the boundaries of traditional computing disciplines. Furthermore, given the large design space and challenging characteristics of the problems we are working on, there are many opportunities for undergraduate students to get involved and contribute to the research project. In particular, undergraduate students with a basic knowledge of software can code up algorithms that exploit redundancy in software, or they can evaluate techniques within the compiler or hardware and measure performance, reliability, and power trade-offs. Alternatively, students with Verilog coding experience can help implement reliability enhancing techniques for performance and power characterization using standard synthesis tools. By placing some of these activities in the hands of an undergraduate, they gain valuable design and research experience, and it allows graduate students to focus on the most challenging aspects of the project.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

Exploring Cross-Layer, Integrated Approaches for Improving the Reliability of Heterogeneous Multicore Processors

James Tuck
04/01/13 - 03/31/16

As minimum feature sizes in microprocessor devices continue to scale down, the susceptibility of hardware to a plurality of faults is increasing. Resilient system design is no longer relegated to high-end, business applications where cost is no issue. Now even inexpensive consumer electronics will need some support for fault tolerance. However, approaches that double or triple system costs by replicating hardware are likely too expensive for consumer electronics, like phones, tablets, or laptops. This project will investigate a new way of modeling and supporting hardware fault tolerance that allows and relies on software and hardware working together cooperatively. The key idea is the design of a system vulnerability model (SVM) which approximates the vulnerability of an application to a hardware error while running on a given hardware platform. Using the model, each layer of the system, for example the CPU, offers knobs which can be tuned to control overall system vulnerability. This allows the design of systems that cheaply provide the right amount of fault tolerance for a given application.

These research activities have several broader impacts. The results of this research could impact how future computer systems provide fault tolerance. Ultimately, such impact benefits society by helping sustain the demand for reliable computing devices. In the immediate future, it will support the training of graduate students in this critical area, and it will support enhancement of the undergraduate curriculum at NC State to include topics in fault tolerance.

This project is sponsored by Semiconductor Research Corporation.

Student Travel Support for the 2015 International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ISCA-42)

James Tuck
06/15/15 - 05/31/16

The proposal requests travel support funds to enable students

to defray the costs of traveling to and attending ISCA-42. The conference is being held in

Portland, OR.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

CAREER: Material Design and Research Oriented Multidisciplinary Education: Amorphous to Nanocrystalline Electronic Materials with Applications to Thermoelectrics

Daryoosh Vashaee
10/01/14 - 07/31/19

Amorphous based materials can possess fundamentally different electrical and thermal properties than crystalline or nanocrystalline forms of the same material. Although, amorphous materials have found applications and continue to show promise for modern technologies, charge carrier and phonon transport in these materials remain a point of dispute. The lack of long- and short-range order in amorphous materials leads to complicated interplay between structure and energy transport. In this project a novel class of electronic materials based on bulk amorphous structures in the form of amorphous-crystalline nanocomposites will be developed and their thermal and electrical properties will be tailored. The application will be focused on thermoelectric materials, but the results are expected to produce new science applicable to other functional materials including optical and magnetic materials. Parallel to the research endeavors, an educational plan will be implemented which incorporates and develops a new teaching initiative in the upper-division undergraduate curriculum, involves undergraduates in research, promotes student international collaborative research, exposes the field of energy materials to the general public, and provides a resource web-site for advanced thermoelectric material studies. The available resources in the Oklahoma Louis Stokes Alliance for Minority Participation (OK-LSAMP) and Multicultural Engineering Program (MEP) programs will be used for expanding the participation of minority students and the recruitment of high school students.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

Rational Design of Thermoelectric Materials and Material Processing Approaches Based on Microwave Processing of Silicides

Daryoosh Vashaee
10/01/14 - 07/31/17

This research plan aims to develop a path to construct thermoelectric devices with greatly improved efficiency, much greater than improvements due to reduction of thermal conductivity exploited in nanotechnological approaches. A novel class of electronic materials will be designed and created based on bulk amorphous structures including amorphous-crystalline composites. The thermoelectric properties will be controlled via a combined theoretical and experimental effort. The PI and Co-PIs will adopt a synthesis method that is scalable for manufacturing; hence, the developed materials based on silicides must be efficient, cost effective, thermally stable, mechanically robust, and appropriate for batch processing. Although the primary focus will be on silicide thermoelectrics, the results are expected to pave the way for creating novel amorphous base electronic, optical and magnetic materials.

The program has two immediate and overlapping educational goals: (1) improve students' capability of interdisciplinary research, and (2) enhance relevance learning for both undergraduate and graduate students. These goals will be addressed through the development of a complementary set of multidisciplinary courses in nanoscience and technology. In particular, the following goals will be emphasized: (1) the capability of synthesizing interdisciplinary contents, (2) collaborative teamwork and learning skills, and (3) “hands-on” laboratory and research experiences.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

Thermoelectric Energy Generators Based on High Efficiency Nanocomposite Materials

Daryoosh Vashaee
09/01/14 - 08/31/15

We have been able to develop some of the most efficient bulk thermoelectric materials in our laboratory in recent years. Among these materials, (Bi,Sb)2(Se,Te)3 based nanocomposite structures are of special interest for body heat energy harvesting. The focus of this project is to make efficient thermoelectric generators (TEG) optimized for on-body applications. Due to the space and weight limitation, such TEG devices suffer from poor heat dissipation; therefore, both the material and the device must be designed to match the existing thermal load. For this purpose, the figure of merit, ZT, although critical, is not the only important parameter and each material property, geometrical factors, electrical and thermal contacts, and interfacing with the power conditioning unit must be optimized.

At material level, we will tune the thermoelectric properties, namely, electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity for a practically achievable TEG geometry to match with the on-body conditions. At device level, we design and make the TEG considering the heat source and sink conditions, surface area, form factors, and the voltage required for the boost converter. TEG devices will have suitable shapes to sit on the wrist or arm area. We will work closely with the group developing the flexible substrate for the fabrication of the TEG devices.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Advanced Self Powered Systems of Sensors and Technologies (ASSIST) Center.

NeTS-Small: Exploring Theoretical Foundation of Mobile Clouds: From One-Hop Neighbors To the Internet

Wenye Wang, Do Young Eun
10/01/14 - 09/30/17

In this project, we plan to explore fundamental issues that advance our

understanding of using mobile clouds in deliverying wireless data traffic. In other words, we aim to find out whether and under what conditions mobile clouds are feasible for providing mobile application services or not and whether there exist theoretical limits or guidelines that can help or hinder the development of mobile

clouds. An in-depth understanding of such questions would greatly help emerging new applications over mobile platform.

Therefore, we propose to focus on four inter-correlated,

equally important issues toward building blocks of a theoretical foundation for mobile cloud computing, that is, evolution of single-hop mobile cloudlet, performance of opportunistic mobile cloudlet, efficient discovery of neighboring cloudlets and spatial-temporal properties of mobile-to-cloud. In particular, we consider the data transportation over the wireless sector in which our main objective is to have a close-up of formation and evolution of mobile cloudlet over time, with possible intermediate relays, and ends

up with base stations or access points.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

NeTS: A Timing Perspective on Information Dissemination in Vehicular Adhoc Networks

Wenye Wang, Alexandra Duel-Hallen
09/01/10 - 08/31/15

This proposal supplement focuses on channel measurements to complement the theoretical investigation for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) of the parent proposal. As one of the most promising large-scale applications of mobile ad hoc networks, vehicular networking has emerged as a radically new paradigm for the design of networking protocols, mobility models, and a variety of new applications for our daily lives. This technology has its roots in on-board sensors in vehicles, global position systems (GPS) receivers, and algorithms/protocols in ad hoc networks, which enable vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications without infrastructure equipment (e.g., base stations in cellular systems). While a good level of understanding of network performance has been accumulated, it does not fulfill the needs of VANET, partially because of lack of deployment of sound channel models, and partially due to the challenges of modeling and analysis for vehicular environments with significant dynamics and randomness. As vehicular communications advance large-scale and social networks, there is an acute

and timely demand for exploring fundamental principles of mobility-induced channels and network dynamics, which have not been studied systematically, but have tremendous impact on a wide range of research areas, such as channel prediction, routing protocol designs, optimization techniques for performance analysis and estimation, and modeling of network architecture and topology.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

CREATIV Dynamic Regulatory Modeling of the Iron Deficiency Response in Arabidopsis thaliana

Cranos Williams, Joel J. Ducoste, Terri Long, James Tuck
08/15/12 - 07/31/17

In this proposal, we present a novel paradigm for identifying putative cis-regulatory promoter targets that control the regulation of stress responses in plants. This paradigm will also be used to identify critical regulatory components that differentiate the regulatory stress response across different cell types. We first develop the computational and analytical infrastructure needed to build a dynamic model of the gene regulatory network from time-course transcription profile data that quantifies the stress response. Novel analytical model refinement techniques are proposed to reduce the space of feasible solutions, generate specifications for model validation experiments, and test functional redundancy in the response. Parallel computing architectures will be used to scale the implementation of these model refinement approaches to the size and complexity associated with gene regulatory networks. The dynamic model of the gene regulatory network will be used to identify relationships between genes, build corresponding functional modules, and identify putative cis-regulatory promoter targets and regulatory components that can be used to alter responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Previous cell-specific transcription profiling has indicated that cell types have distinct expression profiles and respond differently to stress. We will generate cell-specific time-course transcription profiles using experiment specifications derived from the dynamic gene regulatory network. These data will be used to create a cell-specific dynamic gene regulatory network for identifying regulators that are key in differentiating the stress response between cell types.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

High-Resolution in Vivo Imaging of Stem Cell Divisions with Light Sheet Microscopy

Rosangela Sozzani , Cranos Williams, Timothy Horn
07/01/15 - 06/30/16

Stem cell regeneration largely regulates plant growth rate and biomass. Live imaging is commonly used to observe stem cell asymmetric cell divisions. However, current studies only provide snapshots of this highly dynamic process. This collaborative proposal between CALS and CoE is aimed to capture theses dynamic processes over time and under physiologically sustainable conditions. High-resolution time-series imaging data will allow us to generate a mathematical model that predicts how and when asymmetric divisions are triggered. Modeling the dynamics that govern stem cell regeneration will contribute to an accurate understanding of the design rules governing cell pluripotency. The innovative and transformative aspects of this proposal are at three levels, 1- build custom made microfluidic devices using additive manufacturing, more commonly known as 3D printing; 2- obtain quantitative imaging of cell division dynamics using light-sheet microscopy; 3- generate mathematical models of the stem cell dynamics. Seed funding from NCSU will allow us to obtain the data necessary to attract future funding from NSF, NIH, and DOE.

This project is sponsored by NCSU Research and Innovation Seed Funding Program.

Implementation and Analysis of Novel Real-Time QRS Detection Algorithms

Cranos Williams, H. T. Nagle
05/15/15 - 01/31/17

The QRS complex has been identified as a critical and important waveform in electrocardiogram signals. The time of its occurrence as well as its shape provide much information about the current state of the heart. Although the detection of the QRS complex has been an active research topic for the past 30 years, many of the different implementations have very different characteristics with respect to accuracy, time of detection, preprocessing requirements, peak detection, and performance in the presence of noise and/or signal distortion. Modifications that enable these algorithms to work in real-time have also drawn significant attention. Although others have presented reviews of several QRS detection algorithms and compared their performance in the presence of noise, a formal study that quantifies these algorithms and the tradeoffs associated with modifying these algorithms to work in real- time have not been studied. Our goal in this project is to outline such a study and provide the metrics needed to make calculated decisions on improving real-time QRS detection algorithms.

This project is sponsored by NuPulse, Inc..

Modeling of Cellulose, Hemicellulose and Lignin-Carbohydrate Complex Formation and Regulation to Understand Plant Cell Wall Structure

Vincent Chiang, Ronald R. Sederoff, Hou-min Chang, David C. Muddiman, Cranos Williams, Fikret Isik, Joel J. Ducoste, Christopher P. Smith
09/01/11 - 11/30/16

Plant cell walls are the essential components of feedstocks for biomass based liquid fuel alternatives to petroleum. The secondary cell walls of woody plants contribute greatly to biomass and are targets for improving potential feedstocks. In the application of systems biology to development of new biofuels, as in any complex biological process, predictive modeling is the central goal. We propose to use a systems approach with genome based information and mathematical modeling to advance the understanding of the biosynthesis of the plant secondary cell wall. To do this, we will use multiple transgenic perturbations and measure effects on plants using advanced quantitative methods of genomics, proteomics, and structural chemistry. The combination of quantitative analysis, transgenesis, statistical inference and systems modeling provide a novel and comprehensive strategy to investigate the regulation, biosynthesis and properties of the secondary cell wall.

This project is sponsored by US Dept. of Energy (DOE).

Regulation and Modeling of Lignin Biosynthesis

Vincent Chiang, Ronald R. Sederoff, Joel J. Ducoste, Fikret Isik, David C. Muddiman, Cranos Williams, Christopher P. Smith, Reza A Ghiladi
09/15/09 - 09/30/15

Lignin is a unique and complex phenylpropanoid polymer, important in plant development and response to environment. We propose to advance our knowledge of lignin biosynthesis by developing a comprehensive pathway model of regulatory and metabolic flux control mechanisms. Our primary tool will be systematic gene specific perturbation in transgenic Populus trichocarpa. We will perturb all 34 known lignin pathway and regulatory network genes in P. trichocarpa using artificial microRNA (amiRNA) and RNAi suppression. From each independent transgenic perturbation, we will obtain quantitative information on transcript and protein abundance, enzyme kinetics, metabolite concentrations, and lignin structural chemistry. Using statistical correlation and path analysis, we will integrate this information to develop a mechanistic-based signaling graph and metabolic flux model for the pathway and its regulation leading to specific lignin structures. This model will reveal regulatory constraints on steady-state flux distributions and show how genes and other process components affect flux activity of lignin precursors, composition, and linkages. In this way, we will provide a systems biology approach to this fundamental pathway. There are few opportunities in higher plants to integrate genomics, biochemistry, chemistry and modeling to develop a comprehensive understanding of biosynthesis and structure of a major component of morphology and adaptation.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).

Achieving Performance and Power Efficiency for Single Threaded Programs

Huiyang Zhou
01/01/11 - 12/31/15

This project investigates microarchitectural techniques to achieve high performance and energy efficiency for single threaded applications.

This project is sponsored by Intel Corporation.

Performance Modeling and Tuning for GPU Memory Hierarchy - support for student Hongwen Dai, TO 4000135576

Huiyang Zhou
01/01/15 - 09/30/15

This project investigates the memory hierarchy of GPUs.

This project is sponsored by Oak Ridge National Laboratories - UT-Battelle LLC.

SHF:Small:CPU-GPU Collaborative Execution in Fusion Architectures

Huiyang Zhou
08/01/12 - 07/31/16

Recent advances in semiconductor technologies have led to fusion architectures, in which the central processing units (CPUs) and graphics processing units (GPUs) are integrated onto the same chip. Sandy

Bridge processors from Intel and accelerated processing units (APUs) from AMD are such examples.

However, current fusion architectures mainly take advantage of form factors and CPUs and GPUs operate very similar to discrete parts. In this proposal, we make the key observation that fused CPU-GPU architectures enable new opportunities to address important challenges in either CPU computing or GPU computing, which is also referred to as general-purpose computation on GPU (GPGPU).

We propose novel CPU-GPU collaborative execution paradigms, in which CPUs and GPUs execute programs in a synergic manner. In CPU-assisted GPU computing, CPUs runs ahead either to warm up the shared data cache for GPU threads or to inform GPUs the thread organization for incoming divergent branches so as to improve the GPU resource utilization. In GPU-assisted CPU computing, GPUs will either profile the locality of CPU programs to improve the memory hierarchy performance or monitor the run-time anomalies to enhance the reliability of CPU execution.

This project is sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF).