Silicon technology continues to advance at an amazing rate. However, scaling of dimensions into the nano regeme presents a significant number of challenges for devices, materials, and integration technologies. Non-classical CMOS devices are needed to enhance performance at higher levels of integration.
New materials are needed for each new generation of devices; such materials include: high k dielectrics, metal gate electrodes, strain layers, molecules for charge storage, and carbon nanotubes. Low temperature-short time processes are needed to reduce interdiffusion. New methods to analyze, measure and control statistical fluctuations in small geometries. Research groups in this area also study the extension of the silicon technology base to address energy conversion, chemical- and bio-sensors, and nano-electro mechanical structure (NEMS) needs. Also of interest are manufacturing techonolgies to achieve large scale integration or reliable structures at affordable costs.